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Characteristics of gynoid adiposity measures – Android fat distribution

Metabolically healthy obesity-does it exist?

Matthew Cox
Thursday, October 8, 2020
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  • Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Physical activity was divided into two categories; none or regular exercise.

  • Negative values can occur when using the R 2 -adjusted if the model contains terms that do not help to predict the response [ 44 ]. We implemented a stringent gene locus selection criterion to identify genes where DNA methylation was associated with adiposity.

  • Journal of Clinical Investigation.

  • In EWAS analyses in peripheral blood leukocytes, DNA methylation profiles were not related to any adiposity phenotype, whether adjusted or unadjusted for blood leukocyte distribution Table 3.

Subjects and Methods

A pooled analysis of waist circumference and mortality inadults. Stevens J. A statistical methodology for analyzing data from a complex survey: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. View Metrics.

However, Arnberg et al. Gynoi Health Nutr ; 17 : — The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: acquisition of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. Analyses adjusted for cell mixture, using a reference-free method, report omnibus p- values based on the bootstrap method described in Houseman et al.

Risk factors and association with hypertension and other morbidity. We put special emphasis on snoring, sleep duration as well as individual and overall measures of sleep quality. According to tertiles of android fat mass a. The epidemiology of obesity.

To assess regional adiposity, we used measures of regional fat mass military DXA, which indicated the distribution of central and peripheral fat mass i. Adipsity, the joint occurrence of elevated android percent being in the highest tertile and gynoid percent fat being in the highest tertile was found to be associated with much higher odds of elevated cardiometabolic risks than independent association of elevated android percent fat. Pediatric Diabetes. Long-term consequences of previous preeclampsia and complicated pregnancy: analysis of echocardiographic aspects. J Am Coll Cardiol —9. The coefficient of variation i.

Background

American Journal of Epidemiology. Circulation 5— Public Health Nutr ; 17 : — We noted that, in all our sex adjusted regression models, the model coefficient for the sex covariate was not statistically significant, despite the differences in significance of R 2 between sexes in all lipid measures. Rights and permissions This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

Rafka Chaiban, Dr. Adipsoity iDXA users were trained by the company with regards to correct placement. Related Topics in Examination. To investigate the differential effects of body composition measured by each method, four models were constructed according to each method. Body mass index, metabolic syndrome, and risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

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Oxford University Kicked out of military for being overweight and pregnant is a department of the University of Oxford. There are no other significant associations in girls. Ethical Considerations All study protocols were reviewed and approved by the West Virginia University Institutional Review Board prior to any research activity. Bioinformatics ; 29 : — The results from this study suggesting a much higher association of commingling of android and gynoid adiposities with cardiometabolic risk factors than the independent effects of android and gynoid percent fat in normal weight individuals may have public health relevance.

Clinical significance of high-molecular weight form of adiponectin in male patients with coronary artery disease. In sensitivity analyses, android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and trunk:limb fat ratio remained associated with DNA methylation even after further adjustment for BMI Supplementary Table 1available at IJE online. Abdominal fat and sleep apnea: the chicken or the egg? Sex differences in regional body fat distribution from pre-to postpuberty. Yoon, H. This can be seen in the fact that a female's waist—hip ratio is at its optimal minimum during times of peak fertility - late adolescence and early adulthood, before increasing later in life.

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PubMed Google Scholar. Multiple imputation of missing dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The NHANES is a cross-sectional survey designed to evaluate health and nutritional status of a representative sample of civilian noninstitutionalized US population, using a complex stratified multistage sampling design [ 17 ].

Nominal p -value. Pflugers Off ; : — Genomics ; 99 : — More related articles. Global patterns in excess body weight and the associated cancer burden. Gynoid fat refers to the body fat that forms around the hips, breasts and thighs. Int J Obes Lond ; 36 : —

Am J Clin Nutr. For vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, walking and sitting behavior, the estimates gynoid adiposity 8, 4, 3. Meyer, D. We assessed the associations using the adjusted coefficient of multiple determination which adjusts for the number of variables in the model and ameliorates problems with artificial inflation of the when more than one variable is included in the model. King, T. Metrics details.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

In contrast, a gynoid obesity profile, where adipose tissue accumulates around the hips, is thought to protect against CVD 56. Article Google Scholar 4. External link. Diabetes Care —9. In females, elevated android percent fat was only significantly associated with increased odds of HDL-cholesterol.

  • Body mass index and cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific Region: an overview of 33 cohorts involvingparticipants.

  • This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Identification of genes expressed differentially in subcutaneous and visceral fat of cattle, pig, and mouse.

  • Contrary to expectation, sympathetic tone as assessed with MSNA and expressed as burst incidence was not elevated in participants with higher android fat content.

  • Svendsen OLHassager CSkodt VChristiansen C Impact of soft tissue on in vivo accuracy of bone mineral measurements in the spine, hip, and forearm: a human cadaver study. Ontology: Android obesity C

Obesity Silver Spring ; 15 : — This is consistent with previous gjnoid that reported that anthropometric measures, such as BMI and waist circumference, are generally good indicators of adiposity and correlate well with DXA measured body composition [ 38 ]. Association of regional body fat with metabolic risks in Chinese women. Rafka Chaiban, Dr.

Cardiovasc Res ; 78 : — Also, the association between PBF and clustered cardiometabolic risk were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression models with potential covariates adjusted. Astle et mewsures. After further adjustment for adipose cell-mixture effects, associations with android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and trunk:limb fat ratio remained. We assessed the associations using the adjusted coefficient of multiple determination which adjusts for the number of variables in the model and ameliorates problems with artificial inflation of the when more than one variable is included in the model. S97—S,

Skip to main content. J Clin Lipidol ; 7 : — Silva, H. Peshock, J. According to tertiles of android fat mass a.

1. Introduction

Relationships between total fat mass, abdominal fat mass, and gynoid fat mass in men gynojd women. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Design of a digital and self-reported food frequency questionnaire to estimate food consumption in adolescents and young adults: birth cohorts at Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Obesity ; 15 : — Interestingly, we found that compared to the composite sleep index, individual variables on sleep quality had much weaker and less consistent association with adiposity. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest. J Diabetes Sci Technol.

Yu et al. This may suggest that disturbances in individual sleep aspects may have a stronger association with adiposity than overall sleep quality has, or information on single sleep variables may not accurately reflect overall sleep quality. However, sex differences in fat deposition and other cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk factors are not as evident in children [ 3031 ]. Furthermore, we had an

Introduction

About this article. This is consistent with previous studies that reported that anthropometric measures, such as BMI and waist circumference, are generally good indicators of adiposity and correlate well with DXA measured body composition [ 38 ]. Distribution of body fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women.

An Alu element-associated hypermethylation variant of the POMC gene is associated with childhood obesity. BMI tertiles, based on the BMI percentiles, were used to further explore the aforementioned associations. Song, Y. Some studies suggested a U-shaped association between sleep duration and characteristics of gynoid adiposity measures [ 35 ]. Study Participants Children aged 7 to 13 years were either recruited from outpatient pediatric clinics or as a follow-up to their participation in an annual school screening program in a rural, Eastern United States setting. Metrics details. However, not all women have the most optimal distribution of gynoid fat, hence there are now trends of cosmetic surgery, such as liposuction or breast enhancement procedures which give the illusion of attractive gynoid fat, and can create a lower waist-to-hip ratio WHR or larger breasts than some are able to achieve naturally.

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Taylor, A. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome. Full size image. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Genomics ; 99 : — A six months exercise intervention influences the genome-wide DNA measurees pattern in human adipose tissue. In the present study, we included a comprehensive profile of cardiometabolic risk factors, which were two lipid indicators high triglyceride [TG] and low high-density lipids cholesterol [HDL]two blood pressure BP indicators systolic and diastolic BPone blood glucose indicator fasting glucose and two inflammatory indicators high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP and adiponectin, ADI respectively.

Article Google Scholar 6. Peripheral kicked out of military for being overweight and pregnant exhibits an independent dominant antiatherogenic effect in elderly women. This work is significant because it may provide an assessment of metabolic and gynoie disease risk in children without the obvious risk of obesity and provide healthcare providers with an early tool to aid in the prevention of these disease states. Indeed, numerous studies have found that metabolically healthy obese subjects have high levels of insulin sensitivity and favorable lipids profiles as well as absence of dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension. PLoS One e

Ethnic differences in the relationships between obesity and glucose-metabolic abnormalities: a cross-sectional population-based study. Gynoid upper boundary was below the pelvis cut line by 1. This project was funded through an internal grant mechanism, no. J Clin Invest. Published : 11 November

  • Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of android fat as a pathogenic fat depot in the MS.

  • Consultation WHOE. International Journal of Obesity.

  • On the reverse, psychological aspects can impact on body fat distribution too, for example women classed as being more extraverted tend to have less android body fat. Results: There were no differences in weight, BMI, total body fat and lean mass between the two groups.

  • Association of regional body fat with metabolic risks in Chinese women.

Blood and adipose characteristkcs DNA methylation analyses were performed on characteristics of gynoid adiposity measures representative sample of of these participants, with adequate DNA methylation data available for The implication of using sex-specific tertile values to define elevated fat patterns is unknown and warrants investigation. Scientific Reports Public Health Nutr ; 22 : 1—9. In total, CpG sites were included in the analyses. Gynoid upper boundary was below the pelvis cut line by 1.

These findings, together with ours, suggest that the prevalence of obesity and obesity—related conditions may be higher even among occasional snorers. Several of the genes selected have strong biological plausibility adiposity measures respect to adiposity and adipogenesis, and have previously been implicated in human and animal studies of adiposity. However these studies have several limitations. Logistic regression between regional fat distribution and MetS. The epidemiology of central fat distribution in relation to disease. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. Table 5 Associations between android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence on cardiometabolic deregulations in American women Full size table.

Am J Clin Nutr ; 89 : — Table S2. Gynoid fat contributes toward the female body shape that girls begin to develop at puberty; it is stored in the breasts and the hips, thighs and bottom. Mauvais-Jarvis F. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

PLoS Med. References C. Height was measured using a fixed stadiometer with a vertical backboard and a moveable headboard. Why might South Asians be so susceptible to central obesity and its atherogenic consequences? The American Journal of Medicine. Retrieved Obesity Silver Spring ; 20 : —

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Bioinformatics ; 30 : — Grant, S. Arch Intern Gunoid. Silva, H. Regional PBF was defined as the ratio between regional fat mass and regional mass. A unique contribution of our study is that we examined whether the associations of adiposity with snoring, sleep quality and sleep duration were independent of each other in mutually adjusted models.

Methods Study population Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in local urban communities of Haidian District, Beijing, China in Association of regional body fat with metabolic risks in Chinese women. Ann Intern Med ; : — To measure the conditional reduction in the variation of the responses disease risk factors when additional variables are added to the model, we used the coefficient of partial determination. Marklund SL. Relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Argentinean elementary school children. Does regular exercise without weight loss reduce insulin resistance in children and adolescents?

However, that study was only in overweight and obese subjects, while our population included normal weight children. The adipose tissue overflow hypothesis. As women with higher levels of gynoid fat distribution are seen as more attractive, this enables them to access highly desirable male mates.

There was no significant gynnoid in the concentration of triglycerides, fasting insulin, A1C, and hsCRP levels between men and women. Studies investigating body composition have used a number of different methods to quantify regional adiposity. Diabetes Care 26 : — We sought to examine if higher android fat distribution was associated with different hemodynamic, metabolic or vascular profile compared to a lower accumulation of android fat deposits in young overweight males. This is of particular relevance because decreased insulin sensitivity is thought to be the underlying linkage between obesity, type 2 diabetes and CV disease Reaven, This allows for hypertrophic obesity and hyperplastic obesity. Weil, B.

Cite this article Okosun, I. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. The differences between sexes became more apparent in these analyses. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: acquisition of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. Finally, we observed that there was a 6. View all jobs.

Introduction

HDL-cholesterol measurements for the — surveys were attained using a direct characterietics technique. Means, standard errors, and t -tests, by child's sex, were generated for subject characteristics. This finding agrees with previous studies reporting that gluteofemoral fat, located in thigh or hip, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risks, including lower LDL-cholesterol, lower triglycerides and higher HDL-cholesterol. Adv Exp Med Biol ; : 21—

This study was part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging KLoSHAwhich is a cohort that began in and consisted of Korean subjects aged over 65 years men and women recruited from Seongnam city, one of the satellites of Seoul Metropolitan district. Google Scholar. Endothelial Function and Augmentation Index The endothelial function was assessed using the digital pulse amplitude measured in the fasting state with a pulse amplitude tonometry PAT device placed on the tip of each index finger Itamar Medical Ltd. Onkelinx, S. Several methods, which vary in accuracy and feasibility, are commonly used to assess obesity in humans. Am J Clin Nutr — Crit Pathw Cardiol 6: 51—9.

Peterson, M. We observed that adiposiy is a 5. Among the 26 classes analyzed, 5 lipid classes were significantly elevated in subjects with higher android fat content. Two different machines were used for the measurements. Women with large waists a high WHR tend to have an android fat distribution caused by a specific hormone profile, that is, having higher levels of androgens.

Furthermore, we were able to assess DNA methylation in relation to direct measures of central gnyoid and body fat distribution, in addition to BMI. Lee, F. After further adjustment for adipose cell type mixture using the reference-free approach, associations remained with android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio and trunk:limb fat ratio but not with BMI Table 2. Public Health Nutrition.

References Flier in Wilson Williams Endocrinology, p. The coefficient of variation i. Cohort profile: the Pelotas Brazil birth cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr — Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents.

  • Our observations may suggest that interventions reducing predominantly total and abdominal fat mass might have utility in cardiovascular risk reduction.

  • Regression models for each sex as well as a sex adjusted and a sex and age adjusted regression model.

  • Compared with anthropological methods, DEXA has the advantage of being able to measure both total body and regional fat mass. Curr Opin Cardiol —8.

  • Search ADS.

The existing literature reflects that truncal adiposity, or the android body type, is a strong indicator of risk for disease [ 6 — pregnant ]. Assessment of sleep characteristics We used the first 16 questions on the sleep questionnaire [ 19 ]. It is impractical to expect that DXA scans will become a part of routine screenings in apparently healthy children. Additional file 2: Table S2. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease: state of the art? Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected from the upper outer quadrant of the buttock using a gauge needle and disposable syringe. Nat Rev Cardiol or 9 : — Moreover, multiple studies have also found a strong association between snoring and obesity [ 12 — 16 ]. Epigenetics ; 6 : — Aerobic exercise and resistance or strength training have been found to be effective in reducing both android fat [ 4041 ] and insulin resistance [ 4243 ] in children and adolescents.

1. Introduction

Association of metabolically abnormal but normal weight MANW and metabolically healthy but obese MHO individuals with arterial stiffness and carotid atherosclerosis. The android, or male pattern, fat distribution has been associated with a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, in addition to an increase in resistance to insulin in both obese children and adolescents. Sign In. Download PDF. See gynoid fat distribution.

Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. The effects of metabolic or inflammatory markers were also evaluated. Mean android and gynoid fat amount was 1. Korean Med. They were all male and were recruited through two major universities in the Melbourne metropolitan area.

American Journal characteristics of gynoid adiposity measures Clinical Nutrition. The cross-sectional study design using the aforementioned recruitment strategy over the study period, 24 months, enrolled 73 children participants. Figure 1. Impact of soft tissue on in vivo accuracy of bone mineral measurements in the spine, hip, and forearm: a human cadaver study. Cardiac CT angiography to assess coronary artery stenosis Detailed information about the cardiac CT angiography protocol was described previously [21]. Namespaces Article Talk.

Journal of Obesity

International Journal of Endocrinology. Bioinformatics ; 27 : — Gynoid upper boundary was below the pelvis cut line by 1. The DNA methylation data were out-of-band background corrected and dye bias corrected using the methylumi package in R, 26 and further normalized using the Beta-Mixture Quantile Dilation BMIQ approach 27 in order to obtain similar ranges for type I vs. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Indeed, numerous studies have found that metabolically healthy obese subjects have charzcteristics levels of characteristics of gynoid adiposity measures sensitivity and favorable lipids profiles as well as absence of dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension. Radiology —6. Modest visceral fat gain causes endothelial dysfunction in healthy humans. Diabetes Care 26 : — PLoS One e When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese subjects release interleukin depot difference and regulation by glucocorticoid.

Received 25 Apr Particularly, obesity is closely related to dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure BPimpaired fasting glucose, chronic inflammation status and metabolic syndrome MetS [ 78910 ]. Xiao, Q. Individual regressions were fit for each CpG as the dependent variable in relation to each adiposity phenotype as the independent variable with adjustment for sex, race and current smoking.

Lancet : — Low subcutaneous thigh fat is a risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, independently of high abdominal fat. Full size image. The coefficient of variation i.

  • Endocrine Reviews. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

  • Gynoid fat is mainly composed of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Published : 11 November

  • We are thankful for all the Pelotas members for have accepted to participate and contributed with both follow-ups. International Journal of Obesity.

  • Table 4 shows the amount of the different estimates of fatness in relation to number of cardiovascular risk factors in men and women i. Our findings are however in agreement with the data from Romero-Corral et al.

Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1. Parents were asked to complete additional pregnant related to their child's health and medical history while the clinical assessments were being conducted. In the study, accumulation of ectopic visceral adiposity in general, and of visceral adipose tissue in particular, was found associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile whether individuals were overweight or normal weight. To assess regional adiposity, we used measures of regional fat mass from DXA, which indicated the distribution of central and peripheral fat mass i.

Annals of Human Biology. Impaired endothelial function is considered an early marker of atherosclerotic disease, with important clinical implications including characteristics of gynoid adiposity measures dysfunction, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and neurologic disorders, leading to increased mortality and morbidity Kim et al. An overview. Men were more likely to have unfavorable lifestyle habits including smoking and alcohol consumption, nevertheless the proportion of participants who engaged in regular exercise was significantly higher in men than in women. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Women with large waists a high WHR tend to have an android fat distribution caused by a specific hormone profile, that is, having higher levels of androgens.

Liposuction is a medical procedure used to remove fat from the body, common areas being around the abdomen, thighs and buttocks. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 97 : — There were allowed one drink of water in the morning. Search Bing for all related images. Parents were asked to complete additional surveys related to their child's health and medical history while the clinical assessments were being conducted.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The relationship between SDB and obesity is bidirectional [ 24 ]. Duration of obesity exposure between ages 10 and 40 years and its relationship with cardiometabolic disease risk factors: a cohort study. For example, Wu et al.

This work is significant because it may provide an assessment of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in children without the obvious risk of obesity and provide healthcare providers with an early tool to aid in the prevention of these disease states. Multivariate linear regression analysis of associations of multiple parameters including body composition with summation of five individual components of metabolic syndrome. Fasting blood samples were drawn from a cannula placed in an antecubital vein for biochemical analysis of creatinine, electrolytes, non-esterified fatty acids NEFAinsulin, leptin, uric acid UAtotal cholesterol, triglycerides TGhigh-density lipoprotein HDLlow-density lipoprotein LDLcholesterol, glucose, and liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase ALT and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT. Liposuction does not improve an individual's health or insulin sensitivity [27] and is therefore considered a cosmetic surgery.

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Shaibi et al. Hidden categories: Articles needing expert attention with no characteristics of gynoid adiposity measures or talk parameter Articles needing expert attention from September All articles needing expert attention Physiology articles needing expert attention Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from September Trunk versus extremity adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in white and African American adults.

  • Data are presented in the men and women according to number of risk factors impaired FPG, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity for CVD.

  • Molecular signatures of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a review and perspective. Body fat distribution and systolic blood pressure in 10, adults with whole-body imaging: UK Biobank and Oxford BioBank.

  • Hypertension 56, — Article Google Scholar 2.

  • For the same change in risk factor clustering, the corresponding increase in total fat mass was 10 kg. Examination Chapter.

Academic Press. Sleep-disordered meaxures. Retrieved Adiposity distribution plays an important role in the clustered cardiometabolic risk in participants with overweight and obese and sex differences were observed in these associations. Both android and gynoid fat are found in female breast tissue. Body mass index, metabolic syndrome, and risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

J Clin Invest ; 74 : — Analyses are based on models with methylation on the beta scale, adjusting for sex, race and current smoking. Article Google Scholar ISSN

J Steroid Biochem Mol Characteristlcs ; : — As a female's capacity for reproduction comes to an end, the fat distribution within the female body begins a transition from the gynoid type to more of an android type distribution. Table 4 Associations between android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence on cardiometabolic deregulations in American men Full size table.

Fractional polynomial regression analyses were performed to estimate adippsity associations with adjustment for age, physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking and the whole-body percentage of body fat except for the association of whole body PBF. Also, self-reported sleep characteristics cannot accurately capture important parameters of sleep architecture, such as the duration of rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep, which has been linked to BMI and waist circumference independent of total sleep duration [ 6 ]. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: acquisition of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. Worthington, I.

Acknowledgements We are thankful for all the Pelotas members for have accepted to participate and contributed characteristics of gynoid adiposity measures both follow-ups. Public Health Nutr ; 22 : 1—9. The EndoPat technique uses pulse volume changes at the fingertips after adiposlty occlusion of the brachial artery as an index of endothelial function. Android type have larger fat hypertrophy cells whereas gynoid type have increased number of fat cells hyperplasia. Table 1 shows the age and anthropometric and biochemical characteristics of our study population, separated by sex and combined. The study population and part of the method of measurements for the cohort have been published previously [16]. VAT area and android fat amount was strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors compared to SAT or gynoid fat.

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