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Describe obsessive compulsive disorder give examples that would demonstrate – What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder?

American Psychiatric Association;

Matthew Cox
Wednesday, October 7, 2020
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  • Perfectionism: a belief that one cannot make mistakes and that imperfection is unacceptable; and.

  • The types of obsessions and compulsions you experience can also change over time. Symptoms usually begin gradually and tend to vary in severity throughout life.

  • Translational Psychiatry.

  • Mayo Clinic.

  • Please help improve this article if you can. The average time it takes to receive treatment after meeting diagnostic criteria for OCD is 11 years.

Epidemiology

Find answers to your questions about Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder written by leading psychiatrists. Accessed Sept. Examples of common compulsions among people with OCD include:. Advances in Pharmacology.

A trial of SSRI therapy should continue for 8 to 12 weeks, with at dfscribe 4 to 6 weeks at the maximal tolerable dosage. Unknown [1]. By Devon Frye. There are some basic ways to distinguish between them, however. Adult personality and behavior. You can learn more about brain stimulation therapies on the NIMH website. Subgroups have also been distinguished by neuroimaging findings and treatment response.

Treatment Patients with OCD who receive appropriate treatment commonly experience an increased improved quality of life and improved functioning. Deep brain stimulation has gained popularity in treating people with severe OCD that is not responding to other treatments. Typical compulsions: Excessive or ritualized hand washing, showering, brushing teeth, or toileting Repeated cleaning of household objects Ordering or arranging things in a particular way Repeatedly checking locks, switches, or appliances Constantly seeking approval or reassurance Repeated counting to a certain number. Even in cases where a person knows a particular thought or behavior is irrational, he or she is unable to break free. Obsessions involve thoughts, feelings, and mental images that can seem like they are taking over.

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Certain groups of symptoms usually occur together. The Obsessive-Compulsive Cognitions Working Group, an international group of researchers who have proposed that the onset and maintenance of OCD are associated with maladaptive interpretations of cognitive intrusions, has identified six types of dysfunctional beliefs associated with OCD: 1. Enlarge Print Table 3. Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both: Obsessions are defined by 1 and 2 : 1. Abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children may raise concern for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection PANDAS.

What are your concerns? Symptoms usually begin gradually and tend to vary in severity throughout life. Read Our Privacy Policy. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.

The first two listed actually function as core symptoms that underlie and fuel OCD woild. Common obsessions among people with OCD include:. OCD often centers around certain themes — for example, an excessive fear of getting contaminated by germs. Personal Growth. This leads to more ritualistic behavior — the vicious cycle of OCD. Rifkind N.

Enlarge Print Table 3. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Enlarge Print. Common symptoms include:. Furthermore, those with OCD demonstrate reduced performance in Pavlovian fear-extinction tasks, hyperresponsiveness in the amygdala to fearful stimuli, and hyporesponsiveness in the amygdala when exposed to positively valanced stimuli.

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Practice parameter for the assessment compulsivd treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. OCD frequently occurs comorbidly with both bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. We performed multiple targeted searches in PubMed and of reference lists of previously retrieved articles to further research specific topics, such as course of illness, pathogenesis, suicidality, and special populations. Deep brain stimulation for intractable psychiatric disorders. Specify if: Tic-related : The individual has a current or past history of a tic disorder.

Clomipramine Anafranila tricyclic antidepressant with a strong serotonergic effect, was previously the first-line pharmacologic treatment for OCD. July J Affect Disord. Formal diagnosis may be performed by a psychologist, psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other licensed mental health professional. Group and individual treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder using cognitive therapy and exposure plus response prevention. Specify if:.

Management of anxiety disorders [published correction appears in Can J Psychiatry. A mental health professional can determine whether or not you have OCPD and sxamples you deal with the symptoms of the condition. The response to psychological treatments may last longer than the response to medications. Sometimes people with OCD also have other mental disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and body dysmorphic disorder, a disorder in which someone mistakenly believes that a part of their body is abnormal. OCLC

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

However, these thoughts and behaviors do not typically disrupt daily life. However, getting treatment as soon as possible may help prevent OCD from worsening and disrupting activities and your daily routine. Sawchuk CN expert opinion. Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD features a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears obsessions that lead you to do repetitive behaviors compulsions. In OCD, examples of compulsions include repeated handwashing or counting, but everyone with OCD is different and may display different behaviors.

Allscripts EPSi. National Institute of Mental Health. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Eating Disorders. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs We've tried, tested and written unbiased reviews of the best online therapy programs including Talkspace, Betterhelp, and Regain. Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors can often be dramatically reduced using behavior therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT or exposure and response prevention therapy ERP.

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In most cases, exampels obsession is related to preventing physical harm or damage. For example, bedtime routines, learning a new skill and religious practices are not compulsions. Want to use this article elsewhere? Terminological and Classificatory Issues. Symptom-specific neuroimaging abnormalities include the hyperactivity of caudate and ACC in checking rituals, while finding increased activity of cortical and cerebellar regions in contamination-related symptoms. Psychiatry Research.

Other suspected causes include head injuries, infections and abnormal activity in certain areas of the brain. This content does not have an Arabic version. Workplace Issues. To ease your contamination fears, you may compulsively wash your hands until they're sore and chapped.

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Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome. What are your concerns? People learn that they can cope with their obsessions without relying on ritualistic behaviors, and their anxiety decreases over time.

Patients may offer clues by alluding to intrusive thoughts or repetitive behaviors. In addition to seeking treatment, you can learn some strategies to cope with OCPD. The efficacy of quetiapine and olanzapine are limited by an insufficient number of studies. Molecular Psychiatry. Much current research is devoted to the therapeutic potential of the agents that affect the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate or the binding to its receptors.

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Electroconvulsive therapy ECT has been found to have effectiveness in some severe and refractory cases. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing. Usually, the person knows that such thoughts and urges are irrational and thus tries to suppress or ignore them, but has an extremely difficult time doing so. J Pers Assess. Related Articles.

Overview Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD features a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears obsessions that lead you to do repetitive behaviors compulsions. This content does not have an English version. Self-care Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help in coping with OCD. Not surprisingly, the 10 most common symptoms associated with the disorder stem from a root cause of anxiety. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products.

For people with OCD, thoughts are persistent, and behaviors are rigid. Mayo Clinic. A key symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD is compulsions. Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors can often be dramatically reduced using behavior therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT or exposure and response prevention therapy ERP.

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Obsessions and Compulsions Obsessions Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that cause distressing emotions such as anxiety or disgust. American Psychiatric Association; Obsessive compulsive disorder OCD : Current treatments and a framework for neurotherapeutic research. Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD features a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears obsessions that lead you to do repetitive behaviors compulsions. Suicidality in children and adolescents being treated with antidepressant medications.

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  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Exposures are performed both in treatment sessions and at home.

  • Show Answer Each of the three disorders is characterized by repetitive thoughts and urges, as well as an uncontrollable need to engage in repetitive behavior and mental acts.

  • Some individuals with OCD also have a tic disorder. In this procedure, a surgical lesion is made in an area of the brain the cingulate cortex.

However, these thoughts and behaviors do not typically disrupt daily life. Zai G, et al. Related Articles. Treatment for OCD. In people with OCD who live with family or caregivers, enlisting the support of caregivers to help with exposure practice at home is recommended. One effective treatment is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT known as exposure and response prevention.

By staying in a feared situation without anything terrible happening, patients learn that their fearful thoughts are just thoughts rather than reality. Find answers to your questions about Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder written by leading psychiatrists. OCDusually considered a lifelong disorder, can have mild to moderate symptoms or be so severe and time-consuming that it becomes disabling. The first two listed actually function as core symptoms that underlie and fuel OCD disorders.

Frontiers in Neuroscience. Treatment may improve an individual's exzmples to function at school and work, develop and enjoy relationships, and pursue leisure activities. Suicidality in children and adolescents being treated with antidepressant medications. During treatment sessions, patients are exposed to feared situations or images that focus on their obsessions, initially leading to increased anxiety. Symptoms generally worsen when you experience greater stress.

Understanding the causes will help determine specific, personalized treatments to treat OCD. Most people are able to dismiss them from consciousness and move on. De; Arnold, Elysse B.

Wxamples Disorder and Eating Disorders. In OCD, examples of compulsions include repeated handwashing or counting, but everyone with OCD is different and may display different behaviors. Patients with OCD who receive appropriate treatment commonly experience an increased improved quality of life and improved functioning. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession. Some studies show that anterior capsulotomy, a surgical procedure, can also be effective but it is underused due to historical prejudice rather than lack of clinical effectiveness. Advances in Pharmacology.

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In children, SSRIs can be considered as a second-line therapy in those with moderate to severe impairment, with close monitoring for psychiatric adverse effects. In some cases, these behaviors can also cause adverse physical symptoms. Habit reversal therapy Limited studies evaluating response to pharmacotherapy. Avoiding being around others. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Historically, dysfunction in the serotonin system was postulated to be the main factor in OCD pathogenesis, given the selective response to serotonergic medication.

However, the distress caused by these intrusive thoughts cannot be resolved by logic or reasoning. Some people also benefit from medications. Workplace Issues. Psychiatric Genetics. Obsessive compulsive disorder OCD : Current treatments and a framework for neurotherapeutic research. Zai G, et al. This content does not have an Arabic version.

Course of Illness

Motor tics are sudden, brief, repetitive movements, such as eye blinking and other eye movements, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, and head or shoulder jerking. Retrieved 11 November The familiality of specific symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

A class of medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs oobsessive, give examples used to treat depression, can also be effective in the treatment of OCD. The behaviors typically prevent or reduce a person's distress related to an obsession. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession. Obsessive Compulsive-Disorder Overview. The cause of the condition remains unknown, though genetics appears to have some influence on whether a person will develop the disorder. Also, using basic relaxation techniques, such as meditation, yoga, visualization, and massage, can help ease the stress and anxiety caused by OCD.

  • OCD is a serious anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviors that, if left unchecked, can severely affect your quality of life. The results of family and twin studies suggest that OCD has a moderate genetic component.

  • Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession.

  • Obsessive—compulsive disorder affects about 2. That is the "exposure".

  • Calls to numbers on a specific treatment center listing will be routed to that treatment center.

  • Other suspected causes include head injuries, infections and abnormal activity in certain areas of the brain. Updated October

View More. The first two listed actually function as core symptoms that underlie and fuel OCD disorders. Gabriel M, et al. Learn the best ways to manage stress and negativity in your life. Frontiers in Neuroscience. New insights and perspectives on genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Eastern time, M-F. For the most up-to-date information on medications, side effects, and warnings, visit the FDA website. Examples would be moderate constant checking of hygiene, the hearth or the environment for enemies. Compulsions can be directly related to the obsession — repeatedly washing hands in response to contamination fears, for example — but they may also be totally unconnected. What Is OCD?

Excoriation skin-picking disorder. X-linked intellectual disability Lujan—Fryns syndrome. The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent, or are clearly excessive.

These compulsions are excessive and often are not realistically related to the problem they're intended to fix. Calls to numbers on a specific treatment center listing will be routed examples that that treatment center. Even if they know their obsessions are not realistic, people with OCD have difficulty disengaging from the obsessive thoughts or stopping the compulsive actions. Obsessive-compulsive disorder usually includes both obsessions and compulsions. Some studies show that anterior capsulotomy, a surgical procedure, can also be effective but it is underused due to historical prejudice rather than lack of clinical effectiveness. Zai G, et al. These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress.

These new approaches include combination and add-on augmentation treatments, as well as novel techniques such as deep brain stimulation. Venlafaxine Desvenlafaxine Duloxetine. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Oxford, GA. A 5-year prospective follow-up study of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Furthermore, some subtypes have been associated with improvement in performance on certain tasks such as pattern recognition washing subtype and spatial working memory obsessive thought subtype.

So without further adieu, here are the 10 most common symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients who do not respond to one SSRI medication sometimes respond to another. American Psychiatric Association. Other psychiatric medications can also be effective. For people with OCD, thoughts are persistent, and behaviors are rigid.

Signs and Symptoms

USA Network. These symptoms fit into three to five groupings. Please enable JavaScript and refresh the page in order to complete this form. An individual risk-benefit analysis should be discussed when considering SSRI therapy during pregnancy and lactation. Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Rumination syndrome Other specified feeding or eating disorder.

Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors can often be dramatically reduced using behavior therapy, such woud cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT or exposure and response prevention therapy ERP. You might try to ignore them or get rid of them by performing a compulsive behavior or ritual. So without further adieu, here are the 10 most common symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Approximately 2. Skip to content. Imaging studies have shown differences in the frontal cortex and subcortical structures of the brain in patients with OCD. For example, people who obsessively wash their hands with antibacterial soap and hot water can make their skin red and raw with dermatitis. Stepped care versus standard cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. OCD has a highly selective response to serotonergic medications. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of exposure and ritual prevention, clomipramine, and their combination in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Caregiver interventions In people with OCD who live with family or caregivers, enlisting the support of caregivers to help diisorder exposure practice at home is recommended. OCD obsessions are repeated, persistent and unwanted thoughts, urges or images that are intrusive and cause distress or anxiety. Obsessions are the other half of obsessive-compulsive disorder, the experience that causes compulsive behaviors. Understanding and Healing Touching and Movement Rituals.

Demnstrate more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. Show Answer Each of the three disorders is characterized by repetitive thoughts and urges, as well as an uncontrollable describe obsessive compulsive disorder give examples that would demonstrate to engage in repetitive behavior and mental acts. A more intense obsession could be a preoccupation with the thought or image of a close family member or friend dying [16] [17] or intrusions related to " relationship rightness ". The lifetime risk of developing OCD is higher in females, who typically develop the disorder in adolescence. OCD Types. A proposed new label for this diagnosis is childhood acute neuropsychiatric symptoms CANS.

Psychological Disorders. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission have implicated in OCD. Addition of an atypical antipsychotic is effective for some patients with inadequate response to SSRI therapy. Foa EB, et al.

  • All I require of you is that for the future you pay no attention to them whatsoever. Enlarge Print Table 3.

  • Indian J Psychiatry.

  • True OCD is characterized by frightening obsessions, time-consuming compulsions, and high levels of anxiety.

  • Calls to numbers on a specific treatment center listing will be routed to that treatment center. View More.

This treatment is used as a last resort and has received limited FDA approval under the humanitarian device exemption. Your primary care physician or a psychiatrist will need to prescribe any medication. Archived from the original on 29 December Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders are a group of overlapping disorders that generally involve intrusive, unpleasant thoughts and repetitive behaviors.

Beneficial Film Guides, Inc. The medications most frequently used are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs. Bloch MH, et al. Even when compulsions are not easily observable, patients with OCD usually have mental rituals.

Retrieved 8 December It is helpful to quantify the dizorder of symptoms and impairment before and during treatment. In response, the person develops an "external prohibition" against this type of touching. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell; Common symptoms include: Fear of germs or contamination Unwanted forbidden or taboo thoughts involving sex, religion, or harm Aggressive thoughts towards others or self Having things symmetrical or in a perfect order Compulsions are repetitive behaviors that a person with OCD feels the urge to do in response to an obsessive thought.

Because of this, those with OCPD may also avoid seeking professional help. Most people are diagnosed by about age 19, typically with an earlier age of onset in boys than in girls, but onset after age 35 does happen. American Psychiatric Association. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ordering and arranging.

Obsessions are the other half of obsessive-compulsive disorder, the experience that causes compulsive behaviors. Also, using basic relaxation techniques, such as meditation, yoga, visualization, and massage, can help ease the stress and anxiety caused by OCD. Sometimes, compulsive behavior is present in other conditions, such as addictionbinge-eating disorderor hoarding disorder. Gabriel M, et al. There's a difference between being a perfectionist — someone who requires flawless results or performance, for example — and having OCD. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession. To ease your contamination fears, you may compulsively wash your hands until they're sore and chapped.

Overview Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD features a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears obsessions that lead you to do repetitive behaviors compulsions. Addiction specialists are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week Who Answers? Treatment may improve an individual's ability to function at school and work, develop and enjoy relationships, and pursue leisure activities. Medication A class of medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIstypicall used to treat depression, can also be effective in the treatment of OCD. Exposure and response prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review and new directions.

Archived from the original on 29 December Symptoms may come and go, ease over time, or worsen. Hoarding disorder.

Typical compulsions: Excessive or ritualized hand washing, showering, brushing teeth, or toileting Repeated cleaning of household objects Ordering or arranging things in a particular way Repeatedly checking locks, switches, or appliances Constantly seeking approval or reassurance Repeated counting to a certain number. There's no sure way to prevent obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the most severe cases, a constant repetition of rituals may fill the day, making a normal routine impossible. American Psychiatric Association;

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Information from references 30 and Retrieved 11 November Common obsessions and compulsions are included in Table 1. Brief reactive psychosis Schizoaffective disorder Schizophreniform disorder. Archived from the original on 12 January Obsessive—compulsive disorder affects about 2.

  • There is a debate as to whether hoarding should be considered with other OCD symptoms. More research is needed to understand this relationship better.

  • In OCD, examples of compulsions include repeated handwashing or counting, but everyone with OCD is different and may display different behaviors.

  • Hoarding disorder.

  • Learn the best ways to manage stress and negativity in your life. Read Our Privacy Policy.

Postpartum depression Postpartum psychosis. Findings such as increased describe obsessive compulsive disorder give examples that would demonstrate glutamate, less consistent abnormalities observed in neuroimaging studies and the efficacy of some glutamatergic drugs such as the glutamate-inhibiting riluzole have implicated glutamate in OCD. Main article: Biology of obsessive—compulsive disorder. For example, taboo thoughts may be attributed to other causes or may not appear to be associated with overt compulsions. In this view, OCD may be the extreme statistical "tail" of such behaviors, possibly the result of a high number of predisposing genes. Table 1. For example, obsessive fears about sexual orientation can appear to the person with OCD, and even to those around him or her, as a crisis of sexual identity.

Table of Contents. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Even though gkve with OCD feel driven to engage in these behaviors, they probably don't want to. For people with OCD, thoughts are persistent, and behaviors are rigid. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs We've tried, tested and written unbiased reviews of the best online therapy programs including Talkspace, Betterhelp, and Regain. Table of Contents View All.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized drscribe recurrent distressing thoughts and repetitive behaviors or mental rituals performed to reduce anxiety. Reasonable treatment goals are spending less than one hour per day on obsessive-compulsive behaviors and achieving minimal interference with daily tasks. The lifetime risk of developing OCD is higher in females, who typically develop the disorder in adolescence.

Meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship of SSRI in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Enlarge Print Table 6. Compulsions are defined by 1 and 2 : 1. Medical Center Dr.

Merck Manual Professional Version. Obsessive Compulsive-Disorder Overview. International OCD Foundation. Advances in Pharmacology. Typical compulsions: Excessive or ritualized hand washing, showering, brushing teeth, or toileting Repeated cleaning of household objects Ordering or arranging things in a particular way Repeatedly checking locks, switches, or appliances Constantly seeking approval or reassurance Repeated counting to a certain number.

Moreover, the obsessions or compulsions compulskve be time-consuming taking up more than one hour per day or cause impairment in social, occupational or scholastic functioning. Log in. Twin and family studies have shown that people with first-degree relatives such as a parent, sibling, or child who have OCD are at a higher risk for developing OCD themselves.

  • Washington D.

  • Calls to numbers on a specific treatment center listing will be routed to that treatment center. Food and Drug Administration.

  • Washington D. Note : Young children may not be able to articulate the aims of these behaviors or mental acts.

  • Environment An association between childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms has been reported in some studies.

  • To ease your contamination fears, you may compulsively wash your hands until they're sore and chapped.

It can occur with several other conditions, like:. There may also be a biological component to OCPD, as having relatives with the condition might make you more likely to have it. Suicidal behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder. A relatively vague obsession could involve a general sense of disarray or tension accompanied by a belief that life cannot proceed as normal while the imbalance remains. So why does the brain of individuals with OCD work this way? They may also look for additional signs of OCPD.

Other suspected causes include head injuries, infections and abnormal dlsorder in certain areas of the brain. Related Articles. What Is Exposure Therapy? Symptoms usually begin gradually and tend to vary in severity throughout life. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. There's a difference between being a perfectionist — someone who requires flawless results or performance, for example — and having OCD. The cause of the condition remains unknown, though genetics appears to have some influence on whether a person will develop the disorder.

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