Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Bmi menurut asia pacific: Body mass index

Obesity and the lung: 5.

Matthew Cox
Friday, November 13, 2020
Advertisement
  • Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox.

  • Body composition and health-related quality of life in patients with obstructive airways disease. The official name of each approving ethics committee is listed in the Supplementary materials.

  • Assumptions about the distribution between muscle mass and fat mass are inexact. With the increasing prevalence of obesity in Asia, BMI as a disease predictor has increased in importance.

  • Overweight is an additional prognostic factor in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. Body composition and functional limitation in COPD.

Navigation menu

Obesity-associated morbidity. Ferrera LA, ed. Authority control. Figure 4.

Impact of obesity on the clinical profile of a population-based sample with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Obesity is a definitive risk factor of severity and mortality in acute pancreatitis: an updated meta-analysis. The mean FVC was Figure 6. PubMed Article Google Scholar Figure 4.

  • Instead of comparison against fixed thresholds for underweight and overweight, the BMI is compared against the percentiles for children of the same sex and age.

  • It is widely known that Asian and Western populations differ in mean body mass. The evolving role of inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  • ISBN

  • Archived from the original on 17 April

This work is published and licensed bmi menurut asia pacific Dove Medical Press Limited. Related conditions. Measure of relative weight based on an individual's mass and height. In other words, persons with small frames would be carrying more fat than optimal, but their BMI indicates that they are normal. Instead of comparison against fixed thresholds for underweight and overweight, the BMI is compared against the percentiles for children of the same sex and age. Table 4 Comparison of proportions of airway disease severity in two different body mass classifications.

Clinical awia of elevated diffusing capacity. National Institutes of Health NIHwaist circumference in excess of 1, mm 40 in for men and mm 35 in for non-pregnant women is considered to imply a high risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemiahypertension, and CVD. Read More. Mean BMI was While BMI is a simple measure that is very useful for populations, it should be considered a rough guide for predicting risk in individuals. For example, the BMI of bodybuilder and eight-time Mr. So, if all body dimensions double, and mass scales naturally with the cube of the height, then BMI doubles instead of remaining the same.

Access options

Comorbidities At the time of enrollment to the cohort, patient comorbidities were checked. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Two BMI classifications were used to assess the clinical correlation between clinical parameters and BMI, and several differences were observed.

Clinical significance of elevated diffusing capacity. The mean patient hypothyroidism in pregnancy sogc was The weight excess or deficiency may, in part, be accounted for by body fat adipose tissue although other factors such as muscularity also affect BMI significantly see discussion below and overweight. High risk of developing heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes mellitus. Archived from the original on 21 August

  • Cluster analysis in the COPD Gene study identifies subtypes of smokers with distinct patterns of airway disease and emphysema.

  • Download references. Executive summary of the clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults.

  • ISBN

  • Figure 1.

  • A previous study suggested that weight loss in patients with COPD is due to a loss of skeletal muscle volume; on the other hand, a change in fat mass is not a significant contributor. PubMed Google Scholar.

  • Cluster analysis in the COPD Gene study identifies subtypes of smokers with distinct patterns of airway disease and emphysema. At the time of enrollment to the cohort, patient comorbidities were checked.

Commonly accepted BMI ranges are underweight under New definition adopted". Between and the U. Figure 2. Download as PDF Printable version.

No significant change in the mean age was observed in either classification. Archived pacific the original on 17 April We enrolled 1, patients. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. The interest in an index that measures body fat came with observed increasing obesity in prosperous Western societies.

Introduction

Body composition and health-related quality of life in patients with obstructive airways disease. We also received approval from each center to use clinical records of their subjects for the study while maintaining patient confidentiality with regard to the data. Serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein correlate with body mass index across the broad range of obesity.

BMC Anesthesiology. Archived from the original on 17 April Published online Aug This had the effect of redefining approximately 29 million Americans, previously healthyto overweight.

The lowest BMI value was The New York Times. Want to know more? Archived PDF from the original on Environment International.

Very few studies have evaluated the correlation between BMI and the disease severity of patients with COPD according to the degree of obesity in Asians. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. The mean FVC was History of myocardial infarction, heart failure, peripheral vessel disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyslipidemia, thyroid disorder, inflammatory bowel disease, bronchiectasis, previously diagnosed COPD, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were carefully evaluated.

  • High BMI is associated with type 2 diabetes only in persons with high serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

  • Crit Care Med. Tumor necrosis factor in sera of obese patients: fall with weight loss.

  • Environment International. Diabetes Res Clin Pract.

  • Tan DA. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr.

Effects of weight loss on peak pacific variability, airways obstruction, and lung volumes in obese patients with asthma. Article Google Scholar Comorbidity distribution, clinical expression and survival in COPD patients with different body mass index. An increase in fat mass is likely to be associated with functional limitation. Eur Respir J. Accepted : 11 December Arch Intern Med.

Elevated circulating plasma adiponectin in underweight patients with COPD. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. Overweight is an additional prognostic factor in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. References 1. The evolving role of inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

Prevention of obesity

Osteoporosis had the highest proportion of patients in the obese group when the WHO classification was applied and also had the highest proportion of patients in the underweight group when the Asia-Pacific classification was applied Figure 6. The study included 1, subjects, and the number of male patients was 1, Optimal cutoffs for low skeletal muscle mass related to cardiovascular risk in adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey — How to define obesity? Both BMI classification systems revealed similar changes in major variables as the patients became more obese Table 3.

June 17, Sports Nutrition. According to the U. WHO Expert Consultation Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. The study included 1, subjects, and the number of male patients was 1,

ALSO READ: Obsessive Intrusive Thoughts Anxiety

PubMed Article Google Scholar 3. Furthermore, when the WHO classification was applied, the proportion of obese patients was too low 2. Comorbidities Comorbidities were observed in different percentages in different BMI categories. In addition to previously reported results, the DLCO percentage gradually increased as patients were classified into groups of increasing obesity. References 1. Moreover, due to the extremely small number of patients falling into the obese category when the WHO cutoffs were applied, some comorbidities such as osteoporosis had an inappropriately high prevalence. The mean BMI was

  • A study that followed 11, subjects for up to eight years concluded that BMI is not a good measure for the risk of heart attack, stroke or death.

  • N Engl J Med. The predicted mean post-bronchodilator FEV 1 percentage was

  • Such a correlation between DLCO and obesity is controversial. Distribution of the body mass index of the study patients.

  • Diabetes Res Clin Pract.

  • PubMed Article Google Scholar.

In brief BMI, is most useful on a population not on an individual basis. Effects of obesity on respiratory function. Waist-to-hip circumference ratio has also been used, but has been found to be no better than waist circumference alone, and more complicated to measure. The medical history taken from patient questionnaires as well as measurements from their initial visit were used as baseline data. Distribution of the body mass index of the study patients. Both BMI classification systems revealed similar changes in major variables as the patients became more obese Table 3.

The proportions of obese patients were Obesity and COPD. Abbreviations: Bmi menurut asia pacific, body mass index; No, number. A previous study suggested that weight loss in patients with COPD is due to a loss of skeletal muscle volume; on the other hand, a change in fat mass is not a significant contributor. Arch Intern Med.

Introduction

Children with a BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile are considered to be overweight. Eur Respir J. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Waist circumference is considered a reasonable indicator of intra-abdominal or visceral fat.

  • Inthe U.

  • PubMed Article Google Scholar 6. Comorbidities At the time of enrollment to the cohort, patient comorbidities were checked.

  • Liver Transplantation. June 17,

  • Waist to hip involves two measurements and is cheap and easy to administer on large populations. Retrieved 5 February

The single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in obstructive sleep apnea and obesity. Table pacific Comparison of clinical variables of by BMI categories according to two cutoff systems. A population-based approach to define body-composition phenotypes. The percentage of patients with congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and peripheral vascular disease was also highest in the obese groups.

Archived from the original on 7 September However, falling into one's ideal weight range for height and build is still not as accurate in determining health risk factors as waist-to-height ratio and actual body fat percentage. Olympia Ronnie Coleman was The Lancet.

Since mass increases to the third power of linear dimensions, taller individuals with exactly the same body shape and relative composition have a larger BMI. The ratio highlights if excess weight is again stored around the waist resulting in increased risk of comorbidities. Figure 2 shows the distribution of BMI values among the entire study population. It is calculated in the same way as for adults but then compared to typical values for other children of the same age.

Influence of obesity on the severity and clinical outcome of acute pancreatitis. The official name of each approving ethics committee is listed in the Supplementary materials. Tan DA. J Parenter Enteral Nutr.

  • A new formula for computing Body Mass Index that accounts for the distortions of the traditional BMI formula for shorter and taller individuals has been proposed by Nick Trefethen, Professor of numerical analysis at the University of Oxford : [56]. PMC

  • PLoS One.

  • Integrated Authority File Germany. Archived from the original on 21 August

  • Due to lack of body composition data, evaluation of the association of clinical parameters such as lung function and symptom score to FFMM was limited. Other methods include measurement of waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and biometric impedance.

We planned to include body composition data for the future study. Support Center Support Center. Table 2 lists the baseline characteristics of the study participants. Learn More. Furthermore, we evaluated differences in the values of major variables when the BMI groups changed Table 3.

Body-mass index and mortality in Korean men and women. International Journal of Obesity. Appropriate Asian body mass indices? The lowest BMI value was Environment International. Data Global Obesity Observatory We offer various statistics, maps and key data around the topic of obesity.

Center for Disease Control. The study included 1, subjects, and the number of male patients was 1, Carl Lavie has written that "The B. Nitric oxide diffusing capacity versus spirometry in the early diagnosis of emphysema in smokers. Niger J Health Sci.

However, there has been controversy when applying international criteria for obesity to an Asian population, and there have been attempts to reinterpret the BMI cutoffs for Asian and Pacific populations. This became the definitive guide for determining if someone is overweight. Waist circumference can be a better indicator of obesity-related disease risk than BMI. Data Global Obesity Observatory We offer various statistics, maps and key data around the topic of obesity. Instead of comparison against fixed thresholds for underweight and overweight, the BMI is compared against the percentiles for children of the same sex and age. Longitudinal assessment in COPD patients: multidimensional variability and outcomes. The scaling factor of 1.

PubMed Article Google Scholar 3. Tan DA. View author publications. We enrolled 1, patients.

Ethnic variation

Respir Med. First, due to the relatively short duration of the observation period of our recently constructed cohort, the mortality of the study patients could not be evaluated. Note: Decimals were rounded to the nearest whole number. Forty-six The effects of diet and resistance exercise training.

Subscription will auto renew annually. The proportion bmi menurut asia pacific patients with major comorbidities may differ according to the two different BMI classifications, but the patterns of increase or decrease according to the BMI of the patients with COPD were similar. Issue Date : June Distribution of the body mass index of the study patients. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

ALSO READ: Dysmetria Arti Inferiori Congenital Hypothyroidism

This can partially explain the increase in the overweight diagnosis in the past 20 years, and the increase in sales of weight loss products during the same time. Read More. Archived from the original on 6 August Retrieved 16 December Generally, the index is suitable for recognizing trends within sedentary or overweight individuals because there is a smaller margin of error. Prevention of obesity. Archived from the original on 17 April

Waist to bmi menurut asia pacific involves two measurements and is cheap and easy to administer on large populations. Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults. Obesity is the major determinant of elevated C-reactive protein in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Determinants of exercise capacity in obese and non-obese COPD patients.

Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Rent this article via DeepDyve. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Obesity: an important prognostic factor in acute pancreatitis.

PubMed Article Google Scholar 6. Longitudinal assessment in COPD patients: multidimensional variability and outcomes. It is widely known that Asian and Western populations differ in mean body mass. Prim Care Respir J. The mean mMRC score was 1. Third, comorbidities were observed in different proportions according to the BMI group.

Second, the quality of life and dyspnea score improved as the BMI groups changed from underweight to overweight. Evidence-based multiple action points for public awareness, screening, and treatment: an extension of Asian-Pacific recommendations. Commonly accepted BMI ranges are underweight under New definition adopted".

Open in a separate window. Chart showing body mass index BMI for a range of heights and weights in both metric and imperial. Figure 7. In an analysis of 40 menurtu involvingpeople, patients with coronary artery disease with normal BMIs were at higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease than people whose BMIs put them in the overweight range BMI 25— BMI was designed to be used as a simple means of classifying average sedentary physically inactive populations, with an average body composition. Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

Six-minute walk tests 6MWT were also performed at the time of enrollment. Body-mass index and mortality in Korean men and women. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Furthermore, when the WHO classification was applied, the proportion of obese patients was too low 2.

Impact of obesity on the clinical profile of a population-based sample with chronic obstructive mnurut disease. Association of reduced asia pacific monoxide diffusing capacity with moderate or severe left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in obese persons. Elevated circulating plasma adiponectin in underweight patients with COPD. Optimal cutoffs for low skeletal muscle mass related to cardiovascular risk in adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey — Executive summary of the clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Bmi menurut asia pacific to mathematician Bmk Trefethen"BMI divides the weight by too large a number for short people and too small a number for tall people. BMI generally overestimates adiposity on those with more lean body mass e. A study that followed 11, subjects for up to eight years concluded that BMI is not a good measure for the risk of heart attack, stroke or death. Samaras TT, ed.

Second, the quality of life and dyspnea score improved as the BMI groups changed from underweight to overweight. A study in June by Romero-Corral et al. Elevated circulating plasma adiponectin in underweight patients with COPD.

Curr Diab Rep. The English in this document has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English. Comparison of proportions of airway disease severity in two different body mass classifications. In addition bmi menurut asia pacific previously reported results, the DLCO percentage gradually increased as patients were classified into groups of increasing obesity. The official name of each approving ethics committee is listed in the Supplementary materials. In addition, applying two BMI classifications and comparing the related clinical variables can be clinically significant and, to our knowledge, no study comparing two BMI classification systems has been reported. Very few studies have evaluated the correlation between BMI and the disease severity of patients with COPD according to the degree of obesity in Asians.

First Name. Archived from the original on 16 December Social aspects. Namespaces Article Talk. For example, this is the case in populations of Asian descent and older people.

Published : 28 December Introduction COPD is a slowly progressive disorder characterized by partially reversible chronic airway obstruction. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is produced in isolated adipocytes, associated with adiposity and reduced after weight loss in morbid obese subjects.

Bmi menurut asia pacific News. The BMI is generally used as a means of correlation between groups related by general pqcific and can serve as a vague means of estimating adiposity. Body-mass index and mortality in Korean men and women. Wikimedia Commons. Mean BMI was Comparison of proportions of airway disease severity in two different body mass classifications. When comparing clinical parameters between BMI groups, an analysis of variance ANOVA test was performed for continuous variables, while the chi-squared test was performed for categorical variables.

In this paper, Keys mnurut that what he termed the BMI was " A study published by The Lancet bmi menurut asia pacific involvingadults showed that overweight and underweight people both had a mortality rate higher than normal weight people as defined by BMI. Keywords: body mass index, COPD, comorbidity. Data Global Obesity Observatory We offer various statistics, maps and key data around the topic of obesity. Ferrera LA, ed. Center for Disease Control. What predicts change in pulmonary function and quality of life in asthma or COPD?

Nitric oxide diffusing capacity versus spirometry in the early diagnosis of emphysema in smokers. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. It is widely known that Asian and Western populations differ in mean body mass. References 1. Dig Dis Sci 59, —

Am J Med Sci. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Early emphysema in patients with anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, when the WHO classification was applied, the proportion of obese patients was too low 2.

  • Body mass index according to GOLD stage.

  • This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Dig Dis Sci 59, —

  • Ferrera LA, ed. European Journal of Epidemiology.

  • Such a correlation between DLCO and obesity is controversial. Body mass and fat-free mass indices in COPD: relation with variables expressing disease severity.

Pacific Date : June The percentage in the underweight patient group increased from 5. However, apcific two variables increased from the overweight to the obese group. A comparison of the normal weight group to the overweight group revealed that the proportion of male patients decreased gradually. PubMed Article Google Scholar External link. Figure 5 shows the proportion of each BMI group.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. An increase in fat mass is likely to be associated with bmi menurut asia pacific limitation. Bar graphs showing the distribution of the body mass index of the study patients. Ann Am Thorac Soc. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is produced in isolated adipocytes, associated with adiposity and reduced after weight loss in morbid obese subjects. PubMed Article Google Scholar Some studies have reported increased DLCO in more obese patients, 3034 — 36 while other studies have observed unchanged or reduced DLCO in obese patients.

By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. WHO Expert Consultation Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Read More.

  • Obesity and the lung: 5.

  • Keywords: body mass index, COPD, comorbidity.

  • Archived from the original on November 22,

  • Optimal cutoffs for low skeletal muscle mass related to cardiovascular risk in adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey — Respir Med.

Menuru categories are generally regarded as a satisfactory tool for measuring whether bmi menurut asia pacific individuals are underweightoverweightor obese with various exceptions, such as athletes, children, the elderly, and the infirm. BMC Anesthesiology. Low but increased risk of other clinical problems. The optimal BMI was found to be in the range of Sports Nutrition. Nutritional support and quality of life in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD patients.

For example, the BMI of bodybuilder and eight-time Mr. Optimal cutoffs for low skeletal muscle mass related to cardiovascular risk in adults: The Korea National Health bmi menurut asia pacific Nutrition Examination Survey — J Asthma. The proportion of patients with major comorbidities may differ according to the two different BMI classifications, but the patterns of increase or decrease according to the BMI of the patients with COPD were similar. Data Global Obesity Observatory We offer various statistics, maps and key data around the topic of obesity. Center for Disease Control. A study published by The Lancet in involvingadults showed that overweight and underweight people both had a mortality rate higher than normal weight people as defined by BMI.

Published : 28 December Comparisons pacific percentage body fat, body mass index, waist menkrut, and waist-stature ratio in adults. The proportion of patients with major comorbidities may differ according to the two different BMI classifications, but the patterns of increase or decrease according to the BMI of the patients with COPD were similar.

Learn More. Figure 4. Measure of relative weight based on an individual's mass and height. The effects of diet and resistance exercise training.

  • So short people are misled into thinking that they are thinner than they are, and tall people are misled into thinking they are fatter. The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment.

  • Comorbidities At the time of enrollment to the cohort, patient comorbidities were checked.

  • A study published by Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA in showed that overweight people had a death rate similar to normal weight people as defined by BMI, while underweight and obese people had a higher death rate.

  • Both BMI classification systems revealed similar changes in major variables as the patients became more obese Table 3.

  • Classification Other methods While BMI is a simple measure that is very useful for populations, it should be considered a rough guide for predicting risk in individuals. The medical history taken from patient questionnaires as well as measurements from their initial visit were used as baseline data.

  • Metabolic Syndrome.

General and abdominal menuruy and bmi menurut asia pacific of death in Europe. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Longitudinal assessment in COPD patients: multidimensional variability and outcomes. Radiologic and clinical features of COPD patients with discordant pulmonary physiology: lessons from alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. These results reveal that a low BMI is associated with worse health-related quality of life in patients with COPD, and this result is consistent with those of previous studies. Results Of the patients mean age

Distribution of the body mass index of the study patients. Acknowledgments The English in bmi menurut asia pacific wsia has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English. The mean mMRC score was 1. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Six-minute walk tests 6MWT were also performed at the time of enrollment. Am J Med Sci.

PubMed Article Google Scholar 3. High prevalence of abdominal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity and clustering of risk factors among urban Asian Indians in North India. The study included 1, subjects, and the number of male patients was 1, Of the patients mean age

  • In addition, applying two BMI classifications and comparing the related clinical variables can be clinically significant and, to our knowledge, no study comparing two BMI classification systems has been reported.

  • Reprints and Permissions. Optimal cutoffs for low skeletal muscle mass related to cardiovascular risk in adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey —

  • The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  • A related indicator is waist circumference divided by height. Hidden categories: CS1 Japanese-language sources ja Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Wikipedia pending changes protected pages Use Oxford spelling from September Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from April All articles that may contain original research Articles that may contain original research from May Articles with unsourced statements from May Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with LNB identifiers Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers Wikipedia articles with MA identifiers.

Authority control. Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. We have paclfic five key areas of policy that are a priority to us. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Bubnis D ed. One study found that the vast majority of people labelled 'overweight' and 'obese' according to current definitions do not in fact face any meaningful increased risk for early death.

ALSO READ: Clinically Euthyroid Hypothyroidism Vs Hyperthyroidism

Comorbidities were observed in different percentages in different BMI categories. ABC News. These are shown below. Comorbidities At the time of enrollment to the cohort, patient comorbidities were checked. JSTOR

  • Download as PDF Printable version. BMI generally overestimates adiposity on those with more lean body mass e.

  • Published : 28 December

  • Obesity and the lung: 5. Retrieved 16 December

  • N Engl J Med.

  • Figure 5 shows the proportion of each BMI group.

CAS Google Scholar. History of myocardial infarction, heart failure, peripheral vessel disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyslipidemia, thyroid disorder, inflammatory bowel disease, bronchiectasis, previously diagnosed COPD, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were carefully evaluated. At the time of enrollment to the cohort, patient comorbidities were checked. Executive summary of the clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

First, due to the relatively short duration of the observation period of our recently constructed cohort, the mortality of the study patients could not be evaluated. Keywords: body mass index, COPD, comorbidity. Introduction COPD is a slowly progressive disorder characterized by partially reversible chronic airway obstruction. Nitric oxide diffusing capacity versus spirometry in the early diagnosis of emphysema in smokers. Forty-six Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms.

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?