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Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters: Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters

Overeating with and without loss of control: associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial health.

Matthew Cox
Thursday, November 12, 2020
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  • Control and loss of control over eating: an experimental investigation. People differ in their satiety goals when they eat.

  • What are the effects of such true overeating?

  • Schoeller D.

  • After a doubly large preload 30 ounces of milkshakehowever, both restrained and unrestrained eaters ate minimal amounts of the taste-rating food It is natural to eat for emotional reasons.

Publication types

Ecol Food Nutr. Clearly, we need lvereating be more specific in our definitions of what we are investigating and what we are trying to describe. Thus, overeating in restrained eaters does not inevitably result in more overeating, especially if the initial overeating is severe enough to produce physical satiety. J Pers Soc Psychol.

  • Effects of physical threat and ego threat on eating behavior.

  • J Soc Clin Psychol.

  • Thus, even when one compensates for having overeaten, there may still be negative effects and thus it seems that overeating at a single occasion is still, physically speaking, overeating, even if the consumption for the rest of the day is curtailed.

  • This has led us to believe that at least something is known about overeating in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Front Psychol.

  • When restrained eaters are disinhibited, whether by believing their diets have already been violated [e.

  • Br J Heal Psychol. Probably not in either of those two cases; but if it is a snack between lunch and dinner, we would clearly view it as excessive.

Examining the mechanisms in female participants. What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large portions? Getting a bigger slice of the pie: effects on eating and emotion in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Self-reported overeating and attributions for food intake. Food, Diet, and Obesity.

This is true for restrained eaters restrained and unrestrained eaters. Perceptions of undereaters: a matter of perspective? When restrained eaters are eagers, whether by believing their diets have already been violated [e. For example, the original preload studies asked participants to arrive having not eaten for 2 or 3 h, but often this meant coming in between lunch and dinner. In subjects exposed to the neutral film, food intake decreased with increasing levels of dietary restraint.

Emotional eating

Enhanced behavioral inhibition in restrained eaters. The illusion of counter-regulation. What does it mean to eat an appropriate amount of food?

Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Effect of depressed mood on eating among obese and nonobese dieting and nondieting persons. The effects of disordered eating, anger, and negative urgency on attentional bias and subsequent food cravings and food consumption. A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

An experimental investigation of people's reasons for controlling their consumption showed that it was those who were thinking about avoiding negative outcomes who most closely matched their eating to other eaters in the situation overeatng These disruptions eaters dietary restraint lead restrained eaters to abandon their diet goals for at least the short term, and instead to indulge in the foods they have been denying themselves. Keywords: overeating, restrained eaters, unrestrained eaters, norm violation, personal norm, social norm Citation: Polivy J and Herman CP Overeating in Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters. Google Scholar. Why dieters fail: testing the goal conflict model of eating. Social Influences on Eating. Many of these effects have been confirmed in real-world settings [e.

The effects emotiknal monitoring by self and others on consumption in dieters and nondieters. Obesity: Basic mechanisms and treatment. Am J Clin Nutr. Although the horror film appeared to be more disinhibiting than the comedy film, this effect may have resulted from a difference in the intensity of the emotions induced rather than from their valence.

OPINION article

Dieting and bingeing: a causal analysis. Physically overeating leads to physical discomfort, which is not generally the case for those who violate a personal or social eating norm. What does it mean to eat an appropriate amount of food?

Overeating is relative for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. Is physical overeating defined by the same quantities for all individuals? But if that constituted 3 meals and 3 snacks spread out over the course of a day, it might not be considered overeating. Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters.

Keywords: overeating, restrained eaters, unrestrained eaters, norm violation, personal norm, social norm. Overeating, then, may be construed in various ways. Self-presentational conflict in social eating situations: a normative perspective. Does emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters undereating for the rest of the day, and thus keeping the total intake from being excessive, or more than the person needed, essentially mean that the overeating that did occur does not have any further implications and thus it is as if it never did occur? Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue neutral affecta comedy film positive affectand a horror film negative affect.

How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high-risk holiday season? Restrained and unrestrained eating. Social Norm Violation: Eating More Than Other Eaters When we eat with others as people do most of the timeour eating is very much guided by what and how much those others eat

Ecol Food Nutr. In addition, young people who report that they tend to overeat relative to others also restrained eaters that they emotionall use less healthy dieting methods, and feel worse about themselves, being more depressed and dissatisfied with themselves and their bodies, as well as having lower self-esteem Abstract We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions neutral, positive, and negative on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint. People-pleasing through eating: sociotropy predicts greater eating in response to perceived social pressure.

Situational effects on meal intake: a comparison of restrained eaters alone and eating with others. Restrained eating and food cues: recent findings and conclusions. Extending this line of thought even further, the same amount of food may be seen as normal eating or as a binge by the same individual, depending on how the individual is feeling at the time J Soc Psychol. Do emotional states influence binge eating in the obese? How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high-risk holiday season? The effects of alcohol on eating behavior: disinhibition or sedation?

J Soc Clin Psychol. Self-presentational conflict in social eating situations: a normative perspective. Int J Eat Disord.

Eating style, overeating, and overweight in a representative Dutch sample. In fact, most laboratory studies of overeating in restrained eaters deliberately use foods seen by most people as inherently fattening or diet-breaking, irrespective of amount [e. Violating social norms by eating more than one's eating companions do seems to be something people work hard to avoid. Watching television while eating increases energy intake. Eat Behav,

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Imitation of snack food intake among normal-weight and overweight children. Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters some instances, they simply wish to forestall hunger; but in general, people want to feel comfortably full or sated after they eat, although there are some people who want to feel completely full The assumption that emotional eating causes weight gain and that stopping emotional eating produces weight loss is oversimplified and physiologically naive. Behavioral and biological correlates of dietary restraint in normal life. In addition, young people who report that they tend to overeat relative to others also report that they generally use less healthy dieting methods, and feel worse about themselves, being more depressed and dissatisfied with themselves and their bodies, as well as having lower self-esteem The illusion of counter-regulation. Knight L, Boland F.

Topics from this paper. People appear to be very careful to match their eating to the amount eaten by others around them Moreover, if we are given a smaller or larger portion than others eating with us are given, this affects how we feel about our eating and how we behave subsequently Thus, overeating to the point of over-satiation can occur without conscious intent or awareness, depending on the eating situation.

Watching television while eating increases energy intake. Just think of your last holiday dinner with friends or family. Food, Diet, and Obesity.

Restrained eaters reality, your body remembers: You are less hungry anx next meal, the next day or even the next week. Weight control during the holidays: Highly consistent self-monitoring as a potentially useful coping mechanism. Conversely, we say that the restrained eaters who ate more ice cream restraibed a milkshake preload than did those not preloaded were overeating, but as these are dieters who may not have eaten anything yet that day, is this necessarily true? Is the effect of social influence on eating attenuated by hunger? Does compensatory undereating for the rest of the day, and thus keeping the total intake from being excessive, or more than the person needed, essentially mean that the overeating that did occur does not have any further implications and thus it is as if it never did occur? For the most part, we seem to try to limit our intake so that we do not exceed the amount eaten by others

Obviously, athletes on training regimes who are expending huge numbers of calories need to eat more than office workers who sit at a desk all day. Is overeating eating more than some specific, identifiable amount, or does it vary situationally? Do emotional states influence binge eating in the obese? Thus, any amount of a forbidden food may be too much for one's diet to tolerate, and thus represents overeating for a chronic dieter. By self-monitoring very consistently. And if that person ate that food and then competed in an Iron Man Triathlon, the activity level might require such a large meal, thus making it appropriate, not overeating.

OPINION article

What do we Know About Overeating? Learning to abuse emotional eating starts during the toddler period or even younger. The outcomes arouusal the three types of overeating differ in some ways. We should thus think more explicitly about what we mean when we say that restrained eaters have overeaten. There are a lot of assumptions made in the laboratory and field studies cited above.

  • By self-monitoring very consistently. Brunstrom J.

  • The illusion of counter-regulation.

  • For example, correlational studies show that people eating together tend to eat similar amounts [e.

  • When asked what the appropriate amount to eat should be, both university students and a community sample of adults agreed that the nutritional needs of the individual determine what is appropriate Heal Psychol.

Just think of your last holiday dinner with friends or family. Is the effect of social influence on eating attenuated by hunger? Bellisle F, Dalix AM. Among subjects who viewed either the comedy film or the horror film, however… Expand.

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Conflicting internal and external eating cues: Impact on food intake overeating attributions. J Am Diet Assoc. Violation of a social norm emotuonal, on the other hand, to lead to less eating, in order to avoid seeming greedy or piggish. The social sanctions seem to be strong enough to prevent overeating when being watched by others 7677when one has to report to others how much one ate 78or even when just eating in front of a statue of a human head Behavioral and biological associations of dietary restraint: a review of the literature. Violating social norms by eating more than one's eating companions do seems to be something people work hard to avoid. Self-reported overeating and attributions for food intake.

Social Influences on Eating. The social sanctions seem to be strong enough to prevent overeating when being watched by others 7677when one has to report emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters others how much one ate 78or even when just eating in front of a statue of a human head Psychol Heal. In: Meiselman HL, editor. Keywords: overeating, restrained eaters, unrestrained eaters, norm violation, personal norm, social norm Citation: Polivy J and Herman CP Overeating in Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters. It seems, then, that people decide what an appropriate amount to eat is by monitoring the food intake of the people around them.

For example, correlational studies show that people eating together tend to eat similar amounts [e. Such eating could make us feel physically uncomfortable i. What do we Know About Overeating? Despite decades of research on the strength of social factors in determining eating behavior [e.

The effects of alcohol on eating behavior: disinhibition or sedation? In my clinical experience corroborated by the research, restrained eating exacerbates the tendency to abuse emotional eating. Int J Eat Disord. What are the effects of such true overeating? Such eating could make us feel physically uncomfortable i.

  • For example, correlational studies show that people eating together tend to eat similar amounts [e. As mentioned, holiday celebrations tend to result in overeating and even weight gain 43 —

  • So physical overeating cannot be defined as any particular amount of food, as the amounts that constitute appropriate and excessive intake will differ from individual to individual.

  • Is the effect of social influence on eating attenuated by hunger? Intnl Jour Eat Disord.

  • Obesity: Basic mechanisms and treatment. Conversely, we say that the restrained eaters who ate more ice cream after a milkshake preload than did those not preloaded were overeating, but as these are dieters who may not have eaten anything yet that day, is this necessarily true?

Restrained and exters eating. Abstract We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions neutral, positive, and negative on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint. But if that constituted 3 meals and 3 snacks spread out over the course of a day, it might not be considered overeating. Emotional distress and disinhibited eating: the role of self.

We all know the feeling of having eaten too much, to the point that we feel uncomfortable. The cycle restrained eaters You feel guilty and remorseful, you redouble your efforts to restrict, the restriction compounds your stress, and you disinhibit still again. Eating in a focused fashion is likely to soothe or calm you and even raise your spirits a bit. Stress undermines the energy to sustain food deprivation, and you overeat. Effects of dietary restraint, obesity, and gender on holiday eating behavior and weight gain.

We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions neutral, positive, and negative on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint. Methods Citations. Among subjects who viewed either the comedy film or the horror film, however, food intake increased with increasing restraint.

Effects of social influence on eating in couples, friends emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters strangers. Physiol Behav. We all know the feeling of having eaten too much, to the point that we feel uncomfortable. Brunstrom J. We proposed that there are different ways to overeat, and thus different types of overeating. Violating a personal norm leads restrained eaters to continue eating, possibly because it gives them an excuse to go ahead and eat the foods that they normally deny themselves. We will look at these more closely below.

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Social Norm Violation: Eating More Than Other Eaters When we eat with others as people do most of the timeour eating is very much guided by what and how much those others eat Social modeling emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters eating: a review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice. Physical or objective overeating, self-perceived overeating, and simply eating more than others around you are arguably three different phenomena. Effects of distress on eating: the importance of ego-involvement. Does compensatory undereating for the rest of the day, and thus keeping the total intake from being excessive, or more than the person needed, essentially mean that the overeating that did occur does not have any further implications and thus it is as if it never did occur?

The effects of alcohol on eating behavior: II. Launch Research Feed. Extending this line of thought even further, the same amount of food may be seen as normal eating or as a binge by the same individual, depending on how the individual is feeling at the time For example, we know that restrained eaters are more distressed or uncomfortable when they eat more than other people do or when they exceed social norms of appropriate amounts to eat 10 — Physical restraint equipment device. Decades of studies of eating in dieters document how dieters can be induced to succumb to temptation and eat more than they planned. What are the effects of such true overeating?

J Abnorm Psychol. Over the long term, it is not clear whether dieters are more likely to overeat physically than restraned non-dieters and thus weigh more, or if they are merely genetically more inclined to maintain or gain weight on smaller quantities of food There are a lot of assumptions made in the laboratory and field studies cited above. What does it mean to eat an appropriate amount of food?

  • If this is that person's dinner, is it overeating? Share This Paper.

  • The effects of alcohol on eating behavior: disinhibition or sedation?

  • Influences of mood and perceived intoxication.

  • Results Citations.

Knight and Boland found that restrained eaters rated significantly more foods as forbidden than did unrestrained eaters. On the other hand, emotional eating is a problem when you abuse it: You have no idea what you feel, other than generally upset or stressed. Normal eating. Handbook of Eating and Drinking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

Google Scholar. Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Self-presentational conflict in social eating situations: a normative perspective. Moreover, if we are given a smaller or larger portion than others eating with us are given, this affects how we feel about our eating and how we behave subsequently Personal Norm Violation When asked if they have overeaten or how often they overeat, most people or at least most dieters are probably thinking about eating more than they intended or expected to eat, not necessarily eating to the point of physical discomfort Enhanced behavioral inhibition in restrained eaters. We must be careful in our use of terminology.

Thus, even when one compensates for having overeaten, there may still be negative effects and thus it seems that overeating at a single occasion is still, physically restrained eaters, overeating, even if the consumption for the rest of the day is curtailed. Addic Behav. In fact, most laboratory studies of overeating in restrained eaters deliberately use foods seen by most people as inherently fattening or diet-breaking, irrespective of amount [e. You eat a lot, but the root cause is under eating rather than emotional arousal. For example, correlational studies show that people eating together tend to eat similar amounts [e. The effects of monitoring by self and others on consumption in dieters and nondieters. Self-reported overeating and attributions for food intake.

Moreover, when presented with preloads of equivalent caloric value, restrained emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters went on to eat more i. We may be worried that we will be viewed as large eaters, a label that is associated with being regarded as unattractive, lacking in self-control, and unfeminine compared to those viewed as small eaters Knight and Boland found that restrained eaters rated significantly more foods as forbidden than did unrestrained eaters. The effects of alcohol on eating behavior: II.

A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples. Google Scholar. This is true for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. CoolsD.

Se restreindre dans un environnement d'abondance alimentaire. Am Psychol. Polivy J, Herman CP. The effects of alcohol on eating behavior: aarousal or sedation? I'll have what she's having: effects of social influence and body type on the food choices of others. Although these individuals may eat different amounts, none of them could be said to have overeaten with respect to a personal eating goal.

  • There are thus at least three kinds of overeating.

  • For restrained eaters who are particularly responsive to food cues 196274 and who tend to like fattening foods more 75it may be particularly difficult to avoid succumbing to the temptation to eat more of tempting, attractive foods.

  • The underestimated role of overeating in a positive mood.

  • Even simply being perceptually exposed to attractive foods seems to cause restrained eaters to increase their intake [e.

  • So, overeating is at least in some respects a relative term.

Being confronted with large portions also reliably induces people to increase their consumption again, often without their awareness until they are uncomfortably full [e. Still, this is a matter of true physical overeating. Br J Clin Psychol. Food restriction and binge eating: a study of former prisoners of war. Restrained and unrestrained eating. Violating a personal norm leads restrained eaters to continue eating, possibly because it gives them an excuse to go ahead and eat the foods that they normally deny themselves.

The portion size effect: women demonstrate an awareness of eating more restraines intended when served larger than normal portions. J Abnorm Psychol. Self-presentational conflict in social eating situations: a normative perspective. If it is the only meal that the person eats that day, is it overeating? Although the horror film appeared to be more disinhibiting than the comedy film, this effect may have resulted from a difference in the intensity of the emotions induced rather than from their valence.

It seems, then, that people decide what an appropriate amount to eat is by monitoring the food intake of the people around them. Normal eating. We proposed that there are different ways to overeat, and thus different types of overeating. New York, NY: Springer

Knight and Boland found that restrained eaters rated significantly more foods as rsetrained than did unrestrained eaters. A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples. Front Psychol. In: Meiselman HL, editor. JP wrote the first draft and CH commented, corrected, and made suggestions, which JP then incorporated into the manuscript. Herman CP, Polivy J.

In this case, overeating is eating more than one's eating companions do. In my clinical experience corroborated by the research, cats eating exacerbates the tendency to abuse emotional eating. The effects of monitoring by self and others on consumption in dieters and nondieters. Am Psychol. Les effets des stimuli alimentaires sur la consommation et le poids. Still, this is a matter of true physical overeating. Not surprisingly, people who overeat, by eating more than is needed or wanted by their bodies, feel physically uncomfortable and eventually stop eating, or may even vomit if their overconsumption pushed them beyond what their stomachs could hold.

Or possibly they have eaten more than a societal norm dictates. Effects of the presence of others arousl food intake: overeating restrained normative interpretation. Jansen A, Van den Hout M. In some instances, the amounts consumed may well be great enough to be seen as excessive, but it is not always obvious that such is the case; in fact, it is seldom obvious. Behavioral and biological associations of dietary restraint: a review of the literature. In: Mela D, editor. The illusion of counter-regulation.

J Soc Psychol. Peter Herman. It seems as if we know a lot about overeating in restrained eaters.

  • Effects of mood induction on eating behavior and cigarette craving in dietary restrainers. Conflicting internal and external eating cues: Impact on food intake and attributions.

  • Polivy J.

  • Handbook of Eating and Drinking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal.

  • Lee AB, Goldman M. Eating can raise your spirits when you are low, soothe you when you are tense, and distract you when you are upset.

Over overeating restrained long term, it is not clear whether dieters are more likely to overeat physically than are non-dieters and thus weigh more, or if they are merely genetically more inclined to maintain or gain weight on smaller quantities of food Proc Nutr Soc. Still, this is a matter of true physical overeating. When asked what the appropriate amount to eat should be, both university students and a community sample of adults agreed that the nutritional needs of the individual determine what is appropriate

Overeating with and without loss of control: associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial eatesr. Soc Influ. Is physical overeating defined and overeating the same quantities for all individuals? Watching television while eating increases energy intake. This happens whether the participants are especially hungry 38 — 40 or not 33 According to Woods 39even when one compensates by eating less over the rest of the day, an episode of overeating does have effects on the body. But violating a norm, either social or personal, seems to produce similar feelings of guilt, embarrassment, and disappointment in oneself.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull. Personality, perceived appropriateness, and acknowledgement of social influences on food intake. Still, this is a matter of true physical overeating. When we do eat more than we planned to eat, or indulge in a tempting food we consider to be forbidden, there are several possible outcomes we may experience.

These disruptions of dietary restraint lead restrained eaters to abandon their diet goals for at least the short term, and instead to indulge in the foods they have emotiobal denying themselves. It is natural to eat for emotional reasons. Pin It on Pinterest. The social sanctions seem to be strong enough to prevent overeating when being watched by others 7677when one has to report to others how much one ate 78or even when just eating in front of a statue of a human head Herman CP, Mack D. Behavioral and biological correlates of dietary restraint in normal life.

And if that person ate that emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters and then competed in an Iron Man Triathlon, the activity level might require such a large meal, thus making it appropriate, not overeating. Herman, C. Violation of a social norm seems, on the other hand, to lead to less eating, in order to avoid seeming greedy or piggish. This is true for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. People-pleasing through eating: sociotropy predicts greater eating in response to perceived social pressure. According to Woods 39even when one compensates by eating less over the rest of the day, an episode of overeating does have effects on the body. Les effets des stimuli alimentaires sur la consommation et le poids.

One can literally eat too much for one's body to comfortably process, which is true physical overeating. Clinical depression and weight change: a complex relation. Food, Diet, and Obesity. View 2 excerpts, cites background. Such eating could make us feel physically uncomfortable i.

Not if we look at how people actually behave around food. Clearly, we need to be more specific in our definitions of what we are investigating and what we are trying to describe. Being confronted with large portions also reliably induces people to increase their consumption again, often without their awareness until they are uncomfortably full [e. Even simply being perceptually exposed to attractive foods seems to cause restrained eaters to increase their intake [e. JP wrote the first draft and CH commented, corrected, and made suggestions, which JP then incorporated into the manuscript.

What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large portions? But violating a norm, either social or personal, seems to produce similar feelings of guilt, embarrassment, and disappointment in oneself. Influences of mood and perceived intoxication. Addic Behav. J Soc Clin Psychol.

Mood induction was overaeting by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue neutral affecta comedy film positive affectand a horror film negative affect. Keywords: overeating, restrained eaters, unrestrained eaters, norm violation, personal norm, social norm. In fact, the large literature on modeling of eating behavior shows that people very consistently eat somewhat less than those with whom they are eating, especially when eating with confederates who have been instructed to eat a lot Why most dieters fail but some succeed: a goal conflict model of eating behavior. Curr Opin Behav Sci.

What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large portions? However, if the restrainfd represents violating a restrictive diet or other eating goal rather than eating an objectively excessive amount of food, we may feel uncomfortable psychologically, guilty and disappointed in ourselves for not exhibiting self-control, despite not having eaten an objectively large amount of food [e. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Situational effects on meal intake: a comparison of eating alone and eating with others. Create Alert.

An experimental investigation of people's reasons for controlling their consumption showed that it was those who were thinking about avoiding negative outcomes who most closely matched their eating to other eaters overeeating the situation However, if the overconsumption represents violating a restrictive diet or other eating goal rather than eating an objectively excessive amount of food, we may feel uncomfortable psychologically, guilty and disappointed in ourselves for not exhibiting self-control, despite not having eaten an objectively large amount of food [e. Esses, The illusion of counter-regulatio n. Herman, C. Decades of studies of eating in dieters document how dieters can be induced to succumb to temptation and eat more than they planned. In fact, most laboratory studies of overeating in restrained eaters deliberately use foods seen by most people as inherently fattening or diet-breaking, irrespective of amount [e.

The effects of disordered eating, anger, and negative urgency on attentional bias and subsequent food cravings and food consumption. Br J Heal Psychol. Restrained eating: an experimental disentanglement of the disinhibiting variables of calories and food type. How restrained eaters perceive the amount they eat. Dieting and bingeing: a causal analysis.

Obes Res. Decades of studies of eating in dieters document how dieters can be induced to succumb to temptation and eat more than they planned. Eat Behav, Br J Heal Psychol. Is physical overeating defined by the same quantities for all individuals?

  • In subjects exposed to the neutral film, food intake decreased with increasing levels of dietary restraint. Google Scholar.

  • PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. How restrained eaters perceive the amount they eat.

  • Disinhibition is not necessarily equivalent to overeating except by the definition of violating one's own standards or intentions.

  • Curr Opin Behav Sci.

Or what about people who eat more than is necessary to sustain oneself or than is physically comfortable? Les effets des stimuli alimentaires sur la consommation et le poids. So, overeating is at least in some respects a relative term. Thus, even when one compensates for having overeaten, there may still be negative effects and thus it seems that overeating at a single occasion is still, physically speaking, overeating, even if the consumption for the rest of the day is curtailed. In my clinical experience corroborated by the research, restrained eating exacerbates the tendency to abuse emotional eating. We may be worried that we will be viewed as large eaters, a label that is associated with being regarded as unattractive, lacking in self-control, and unfeminine compared to those viewed as small eaters Trying not to eat when you are hungry and food-preoccupied takes a lot of energy.

Keywords: overeating, restrained eaters, unrestrained eaters, norm violation, personal norm, social norm Citation: Polivy J and Herman CP Overeating in Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters. Self-presentational conflict in social eating situations: a normative perspective. Emotional distress and disinhibited eating: the role of self. In: Stunkard AJ, editor. Saunders

Herman CP, Polivy J. These disruptions of dietary restraint lead restrained eaters to abandon their diet goals for at least the short term, and instead to indulge in the foods they have been denying themselves. We must be careful in our use of terminology. Braude L, Stevenson RJ.

Philadelphia, PA: W. The effects of disordered eating, anger, and negative restrained eaters on attentional bias and subsequent food cravings and food consumption. Moreover, the timing of the eating matters. Woods notes that while there is no clear reason why elevated glucose should be dangerous to animals and peoplethe tight physiological regulation of consumption-produced glucose indicates that such elevations must pose a risk to health. Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline.

Not only do dieters eat more when they have been induced to consume a diet-breaking preload, but their diets are disrupted by emotions [e. Schotte and R. Has PDF. Knight L, Boland F. Do emotional states influence binge eating in the obese? Gov't, P.

View 1 excerpt, cites background. When asked what the appropriate amount to eat should emotlonal, both university students and a community sample of adults agreed that the nutritional needs of the individual determine what is appropriate We will look at these more closely below. Most of the time, however, we try to gauge our portion sizes to meet our fullness goals, and we use our expectations of how filling the food available will be to decide how much to eat

Do emotional states influence binge eating in the obese? Watching television while eating increases energy intake. In the laboratory, we have provoked overeating in these individuals by disrupting their diets by means of forced, diet-breaking preloads and through manipulations of affective state, cognitive distraction, or tempting food cues [e. In reality, your body remembers: You are less hungry the next meal, the next day or even the next week.

Eat Behav. Overeating with and without loss of control: associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial overeatin. Perusing the tables of contents of journals that address eating disorders, food intake, and obesity reveals a number of articles addressing emotional eating. When restrained eaters are disinhibited, whether by believing their diets have already been violated [e. Knight L, Boland F. Don't mind if I do: disinhibited eating under cognitive load. The assumption that emotional eating causes weight gain and that stopping emotional eating produces weight loss is oversimplified and physiologically naive.

Eqters confronted with large portions also reliably induces people to increase their consumption again, often without their awareness until they are uncomfortably full [e. Dieting and bingeing: a causal analysis. And therein lies the problem. Watching television while eating increases energy intake. Just think of your last holiday dinner with friends or family. Getting a bigger slice of the pie: effects on eating and emotion in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

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