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Thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression – Thyroid Disease

The brain in iodine deficiency.

Matthew Cox
Wednesday, October 28, 2020
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  • Mayo Clinic Hypothyroidism Symptoms page.

  • A TSH level within the laboratory reference range is not necessarily normal for every individual. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:.

  • New York: Kaplan Publishing; An experienced surgeon can help avoid complications such as damage to the parathyroid glands causing low calcium levels or to the vocal cords causing hoarseness in the voice.

  • What's the Connection Between Alcohol and Depression?

  • In a few people, diseases deposit abnormal substances in the thyroid and impair its ability to function.

Hypothyroidism FAQS

Doctors usually suspect hypothyroidism folliicles the basis of the symptoms and findings on physical examination, including a slow pulse. Effects on brain deiodinase enzymes and alterations in thyroid hormone receptor concentration in the hypothalamus are under investigation in relation to the therapeutic effect of lithium. Over a period of three to six months, patients generally see their symptoms subside.

Thyroid dysfunction in major psychiatric disorders in a hospital based sample. Fatemeh Rafiei is a Statistician. Thuroid symptoms are often attributed to thyroid disease if the TSH is even mildly abnormal, especially if it is high mild hypothyroidism. Thyroid problems can often be diagnosed with a simple blood test. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. TSH cut-off values based on depression was determined by Roc Curve analysis. Sign Up.

The hypothyroidisn conclude that below normal and low-normal TSH levels are associated with risk of developing depression, especially in women. Normally, the thyroid regulates various functions by releasing steady levels of thyroid hormones. Prevalence of depression in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism.

The pituitary gland produces thyroid-stimulating hormone TSHwhich stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Radiation thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression. Doctors usually suspect hypothyroidism on the basis of the symptoms and findings on physical examination, including a slow pulse. Mayo Clinic Hypothyroidism Symptoms page. However, iodine deficiency is a rare cause of hypothyroidism in the United States because iodine is added to table salt and is also used to sterilize the udders of dairy cattle and thus is present in dairy products.

Publication types

At baseline, participants completed questionnaires including a well-studied survey called Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised CIS-R that was designed to assess mental health disorders across cultures. In fact, depression is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in hypothyroidism [ 20 ]. Nasrin Rafee is an Internist. Panminerva Med. Depression or Hypothyroidism.

Dayan CM, Panicker V. J Clin Pathol. If your depressive symptoms are accompanied by constipation, dry hair and skill, hair loss, hoarseness, stiff hypothyroidism and, and always feeling cold, it is more likely that your depression is related to hypothyroidism. View author publications. What Does the Thyroid Do? There is controversy as to whether this should be treated or not. It seems that there are analogous mechanisms leading to the similarity of symptoms in hypothyroidism and depression [ 19 ].

Peer Review reports. Nasrin Rafee is an Internist. Contact us Submission enquiries: bmcpsychiatry biomedcentral. FR contributed to the analysis, design and conduct of the research and in the manuscript preparation. PMID: Results The study population was composed of hypothyroid patients female: ,

The doctor will check your thyroid gland and look for changes such as dry skin, swelling, slower reflexes, and a slower heart rate. For this procedure, the surgeon makes an hypothyroidism and at the base of the neck and removes most of the thyroid gland. The hypothyroidism is usually temporary because the thyroid gland is not destroyed. If you start seeing a new doctor, tell the doctor that you have hypothyroidism and you need your TSH tested every year. The pulse may slow, the palms and soles may appear slightly orange carotenemiaand the side parts of the eyebrows slowly fall out. Mayo Clinic Hypothyroidism Symptoms page.

Background

In recent years, our depression in this area has increased significantly with large cohort studies and genetically driven studies being published. When the ranges were compared separately in women and men, women in the lower two ranges had significantly higher rate of depression while there was no significant difference in men. Normally, the thyroid regulates various functions by releasing steady levels of thyroid hormones. Abstract Background: A relationship between hypothyroidism and depression has been assumed for many years; however, the true nature of this association has been difficult to define with many conflicting studies. What's the Connection Between Alcohol and Depression?

If blood tests reveal signs of depression thyroid activity or thyroid cancer, further testing will be required, such as: Thyroid Scan and Uptake: During this test, a small amount of radioactive iodine radioiodine is swallowed. Thyroid cancer is uncommon. Rarer causes of hypothyroidism include some inherited disorders in which an abnormality of the enzymes in thyroid cells prevents the gland from making or secreting enough thyroid hormones see also Hypothyroidism in Infants and Children. Patient Guides.

There are no symptoms that people with hypothyroidism always have and many symptoms of hypothyroidism can occur in people with other diseases. Most patients with follicular thyroid cancer are over the age of TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone test. Patients who receive external beam radiation therapy EBT to the thyroid, neck or chest for cancer treatment may also experience thyroid dysfunction.

Recognizing the Most Common Thyroid Disorder

What's the Connection Between Alcohol and Depression? Abstract Background: A relationship between hypothyroidism and depression has been assumed for many years; however, the true nature of this association has been difficult to define with many conflicting studies. Hypothyroidism and depression are similar in terms of clinical features. Different cut-off points were compared to detect the optimal cut-off value for TSH. Taking Antidepressants During Pregnancy.

For example, they may lose weight, become confused, and have a decreased appetite, joint stiffness, joint and muscle pains, weakness, and a tendency to fall. Facial expressions become dull. There are four different kinds of thyroid cancer. T4 tests. The most common cause is.

People with which of the following conditions are foolicles likely to develop hypoglycemia? Over a period of time, the iodine collects in the thyroid. The thyroid becomes chronically inflamed from these attacks and stops producing enough thyroid hormone for the body to function properly. Mayo Clinic Hypothyroidism Symptoms page. Diabetes Guide for Older People The risk for diabetes increases with age, making diabetes common in older adults. Autoimmune thyroiditis can begin suddenly or it can develop slowly over years.

Clin Endocrinol. Therefore, it is important to consider various factors in determining a TSH cut-off value. Polymorphisms in the brain-specific thyroid hormone transporter OATP1C1 are associated with fatigue and depression in hypothyroid patients. Many patients in spite of being euthyroid present with symptoms such as sleep disorders, fatigue, and depression in particular [ 15 ]. These symptoms might be related to deiodinase II [ 17 ] or brain thyroid hormones transporter genes such as organic anion-transporting polypeptide I OATP-C1 polymorphisms [ 18 ]. Accepted : 22 August The present study suggests that a clinically helpful TSH cut-off value for hypothyroidism should be based on associated symptoms, not just in population studies.

Test your knowledge

AT is responsible for the conception and design and the original ideas and the manuscript preparation. In the past, some studies showed higher risk of depression with low TSH levels and lower risk with high TSH and some did not show any association. In several studies, no association could be found between depression and TSH levels, and there was no need to reduce the upper reference limit for TSH level [ 35 ].

Keeping thyroid hormone production in balance requires the right amount of iodine. Hpyothyroidism overactive thyroid : The treatment for patients with overactive thyroid depends on how severe the symptoms are and what the underlying cause is. Thyroid Gland Disorders. The two halves of the thyroid gland are connected in the middle by a thin layer of tissue known as the isthmus. Patients who have hyperthyroid symptoms at any time during thyroxine replacement therapy should have their TSH tested. Levothyroxine will restore your body's hormone levels and provide symptom relief.

Article Google Scholar This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Eur J Endocrinol. There was no association with depression by category of thyroid function. The connection between underactive thyroid and depression is strong enough that the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists suggests that all people diagnosed with depression should be evaluated for subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism.

Publication types

Contact us Submission enquiries: bmcpsychiatry biomedcentral. Zhang et al. The patients were evaluated in folliclez of depression by BDI. Conclusion: Despite the large number of studies, the relationship between thyroid function and depression remains poorly defined. Psychological well-being in patients on 'adequate' doses of l-thyroxine: results of a large, controlled community-based questionnaire study.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Article Google Scholar. Thyroid dysfunction in major psychiatric disorders in a thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression based sample. Also, PLR of 8. The authors conclude that below normal and low-normal TSH levels are associated with risk of developing depression, especially in women. On the other hand, reduced intracerebral serotonin concentration in depression could lead to increased TRH concentration in brain tissues. Euthyroid: a condition where the thyroid gland as working normally and producing normal levels of thyroid hormone.

Based on these symptoms, a doctor will likely perform a physical exam to determine whether the thyroid is enlarged and order blood tests to measure thyroid hormone levels. The Merck Manual was first published in as a service to the community. The pituitary gland produces thyroid-stimulating hormone TSHwhich stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. People with hypothyroidism frequently have high levels of cholesterol in their blood.

The doctor will check your thyroid gland and look for changes such as dry skin, swelling, slower reflexes, and a slower heart rate. Overactive thyroid may occur because the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, or the thyroid itself is not working properly. Hypothyroidism is common, especially among older people, particularly women.

Myxedema coma dollicles be triggered in a person with hypothyroidism by physical stresses, such as exposure to the cold, as well as by an infection, injury, surgery, and drugs such as sedatives that depress brain function. This information is not designed to replace a physician's independent judgment about the appropriateness or risks of a procedure for a given patient. This cancer has a lower cure rate than papillary or follicular thyroid cancers. Thyroid inflammation thyroiditis. Sponsored By.

Patients with underactive thyroid hypothyroixism need to take replacement thyroid hormone for the rest of their lives. Patient Guide to Osteoporosis Prevention If you are like many people, you may think that osteoporosis—a condition thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression by low bone mineral density, which leads to lowered bone strength and a heightened risk of fractures—is something you will not have to worry about until later in life. Always consult your doctor about your medical conditions. Facial expressions become dull, the voice is hoarse, speech is slow, eyelids droop, and the eyes and face become puffy. Radioactive iodine: Radioactive iodine Ian isotope of iodine that emits radiation, is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism. Here, you'll learn about some of the most important aspects of managing your child's condition.

What is thyroid disease?

Primary hypothyroidism results from a disorder of the thyroid gland itself. The antibodies that attack the thyroid often also attack the tissue behind the eyes, a condition known as Graves' ophthalmopathy or thyroid eye disease. See the Thyroid Scan and Uptake page for more information. TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone test.

Can You Overdose on Serotonin? J Neuroendocrinol. Cite this article Talaei, A. TSH cut-off values based on depression was determined by Roc Curve analysis. J Thyroid Res. Prevalence of depression in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism. The ethic committee of Arak University of Medical Sciences approved the study.

Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: a mild form of hyperthyroidism where the only abnormal hormone level is a decreased TSH. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. J Clin Pathol. Zhang et al.

Common Health Topics. A few babies are born without a hyplthyroidism or with only a partly formed one. Measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in blood. Mayo Clinic Health Information Web site. People who suffer from other autoimmune disorders such as arthritis, lupus and Type 1 diabetes are at higher risk of developing the disease, as are people who have been exposed to higher levels of environmental radiation.

You start or stop taking certain medicines to control seizures such as phenytoin or tegretol, adn such medicines increase the rate at which thyroxine is metabolized in your body, and your dose of thyroxine may need to be adjusted. There are three main thyroid disorders: Hypothyroidism underactive thyroid Hyperthyroidism overactive thyroid Thyroid cancer. Explains what nerves are affected in each type of diabetic neuropathy. The thyroid stimulating hormone TSH level reflects the severity of the hypothyroidism. This inflammation causes extra thyroid hormone to leak into the bloodstream, causing too much thyroid hormone to circulate throughout the body, or hyperthyroidism overactive thyroid. Because thyroid disease runs in families, you should explain your hypothyroidism to your relatives and encourage them to get periodic TSH tests. The Underactive Thyroid: Hypothyroidism.

Conclusion The present thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression suggests that a clinically helpful TSH cut-off value for hypothyroidism should be based on associated symptoms, not just in population studies. The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the Arak University of Medical Sciences because the study was funded by the university. The findings indicated the absence of an absolute cut-off value for TSH to distinguish between normal and abnormal; the mean normal TSH level ranged only between 1. What Is Dopamine? Thyroid hormones play a significant role in brain development. Studies suggest that TSH levels are correlated to the severity of depressive symptoms.

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Your blood folliclrs be tested periodically to make sure the medication is controlling your hypothyroidism. Autoimmune thyroiditis can begin suddenly or it can develop slowly over years. Symptoms of an underactive thyroid include:. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database.

Ethics declarations Authors information The three of authors hypothyrokdism in Endocrinology and Metabolism Research. Panminerva Med. Competing interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the Publication of this article. The blood tests and surveys were repeated 4 years later at a follow-up visit. In fact, several studies have confirmed the existence of classical feedback between the serotonergic and HPT systems. Endocr J. Furthermore, inGull showed the association between psychosis and myxedema [ 5 ].

Associations of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine concentrations with health and life satisfaction in elderly adults. When the ranges were compared separately in women and men, women in the lower two ranges had significantly higher rate of depression while there was no significant difference in men. On the other hand, depression symptoms are less likely to be attributed to low TSH levels hyperthyroidism. Google Scholar. According to the literature,

T3: Triiodothyronine. The Underactive Thyroid: Hypothyroidism. Radioactive iodine therapy is often used after surgery to destroy any remaining thyroid tissue. Phone no:. Blood tests.

What is Crippling Depression? Although different TSH cut-off points have yypothyroidism introduced for the treatment of hypothyroidism in thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression studies, persistence of hypothyroidism symptoms in many patients, despite of being euthyroid, indicates the need for a symptoms-based TSH cut-off point [ 16 ]. The connection between underactive thyroid and depression is strong enough that the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists suggests that all people diagnosed with depression should be evaluated for subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism. At 4 year follow-up visit new onset depression was diagnosed by the CIS-R survey in participants 3.

The metabolism of the thyroid hormones in the brain is a complex process that often involves many steps and pathways. TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline. Fatigue and TSH levels in hypothyroid patients. Of course there are some limitations due to small sample size, convenience recruitment and also the population of the study was not large enough to provide the statistical power to analyze the effects of sex or age and there is the need for broad based studies. Kutluturk recommended that a population-specific TSH level should be detected [ 28 ].

Thyroid Gland Disorders. After a few hours, you will be placed in front of a special camera called a gamma camera to measure the amount of iodine absorbed by your thyroid. Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormone than the body needs. Myxedema coma can be triggered in a person with hypothyroidism by physical stresses, such as exposure to the cold, as well as by an infection, injury, surgery, and drugs such as sedatives that depress brain function. Conditions that affect how the thyroid functions include: Thyroiditis inflamed thyroid : The thyroid gland can become inflamed for unknown reasons. The Underactive Thyroid: Hypothyroidism. Mayo Clinic Hypothyroidism Symptoms page.

How is thyroid disease diagnosed and evaluated?

If your depressive symptoms are accompanied by constipation, dry hair and skill, hair loss, hoarseness, stiff muscles, and always feeling cold, it is more likely thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression your depression is related to hypothyroidism. Therefore, these hormones are essential for normal brain development and function [ 123 ]. Published : 07 September The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the Arak University of Medical Sciences because the study was funded by the university. Clin Biochem.

If the thyroid gland is underactive, the level of TSH is high. Patient Guide to Diabetic Neuropathy Several types of neuropathy nerve damage are caused by diabetes. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Because symptoms in older people can be different, are often subtle and vague, and are common among older people who do not have hypothyroidism, doctors may not recognize these symptoms as being caused by hypothyroidism. Blood tests.

ALSO READ: Hashimoto S Hypothyroidism And Cancer

The latter effect is critical to the development of hypothyroidism and goiter. Medullary thyroid cancer may be associated with other types of cancer and may thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression be genetic. You and your doctor will discuss the best surgical option for you depending on the kind of cancer you have and whether or not it has spread. Treatment will depend on the specific nature of your thyroid condition and its underlying cause. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck that wraps around your windpipe trachea. If the tumor is large, it may cause neck or facial pain, shortness of breath, difficulty swallowing, cough unrelated to a cold, hoarseness or voice change.

All patients with overt hypothyroidism are usually treated with thyroid hormone pills. This knowledge may change the expectation that thyroid hormone therapy should improve the symptoms and the decision whether to use a medication should be made after a careful discussion between the physician and the patient. Reference ranges of serum TSH, FT4 and thyroid autoantibodies in the Thai population: the national health examination survey. In recent years, our knowledge in this area has increased significantly with large cohort studies and genetically driven studies being published. Low mood, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, decreased libido, and weight gain are common symptoms of both.

The Thyroid and Depression. The lowest range thyroiv In animal studies, thyroid hormones influence noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, which is a target for current antidepressant therapies and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of depression [ 12 ]. Thyroid hormone deficiency during pregnancy can lead to delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome and cretinism. Both conditions are treatable, and the sooner you start getting help the sooner you'll start feeling better. Eur J Endocrinol.

The patients were evaluated in terms of depression by BDI. Dwpression participants were given written constent after explanation of the study. Some evidences suggest that one single TSH reference range does not fit the entire population [ 14 ]. All patients with overt hypothyroidism are usually treated with thyroid hormone pills. Indian J Endocrinol Metab.

Article Sources. Conclusion The present study suggests that a clinically helpful TSH cut-off value for hypothyroidism should thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression based on associated symptoms, not just in population studies. Whilst there is some hyppthyroidism evidence that genetic factors can influence well-being on thyroxine and response to combination therapy, there is also evidence to suggest that much morbidity on thyroxine may be due to initial misdiagnosis and mis-attribution of symptoms. Availability of data and materials All data and materials can be obtained by contacting the corresponding author. With this background in mind, we propose a new TSH cut-off value as a guideline to evaluate and treat depression symptoms.

If you are experiencing symptoms of a thyroid imbalance, including symptoms of depression, be sure to discuss it with your doctor. View author publications. In this theory, depression is a state of local hypothyroidism in the brain with normal peripheral thyroid hormone level as a result of deiodinase type II inhibition and impaired transport of T4 across the blood-brain barrier [ 10 ]. In hypothyroid patients treated with levothyroxine, psychological symptoms, especially depression, may persist even when they achieve a euthyroid state [ 15 ]. Hypothyroidism and depression are similar in terms of clinical features. Furthermore, inGull showed the association between psychosis and myxedema [ 5 ].

Generic Name Select Brand Names levothyroxine. Hypothyroidism may be. If you are seeing an endocrinologist, ask that copies of your reports be sent to your primary care doctor. Synthetic thyroxine pills contain hormone exactly like the T4 that the thyroid gland itself makes.

You start or stop taking a drug that can interfere with absorbing thyroxine thyroir as certain antacids, calcium supplements and iron tabletsor you change your dose of such a drug. Substances Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Lithium. The goal of treatment is to get and keep your TSH in the normal range. Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? The hypothyroidism is usually temporary because the thyroid gland is not destroyed. Inherited disorders that prevent the thyroid gland from making or secreting enough hormones.

Calcitonin helps the body maintain the appropriate level of calcium. Hyperthyroidism overactive thyroid : The treatment depressiom patients with overactive thyroid depends on how severe the symptoms are and what the underlying cause is. Radioactive iodine therapy is often used after surgery to destroy any remaining thyroid tissue. Your blood will be tested periodically to make sure the medication is controlling your hypothyroidism. If the whole thyroid is removed, people will definitely become hypothyroid. Sponsored By.

Thyroid hormones play depressin significant role in brain development. A total of 15, civil servants between ages 35 to 74 were enrolled in the study between and Related Articles. Conclusion: Despite the large number of studies, the relationship between thyroid function and depression remains poorly defined. Beck depression questionnaire was completed for all patients by trained interviewers.

The ethic committee of Arak University of Medical Sciences approved the study. Competing interests The authors declare foklicles there is no conflict of interest regarding the Publication of this article. The brain in iodine deficiency. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: a mild form of hyperthyroidism where the only abnormal hormone level is a decreased TSH.

Also, the chance to have TSH level below 4 in severely depressed people in comparison to subjects without depression is just 0. The TSH cut-off point of 2. Hypothyroidism and depression. The link between thyroid function and depression. One problem that can complicate diagnosis is that depression and hypothyroidism share some of the same symptoms. In hypothyroid patients treated with levothyroxine, psychological symptoms, especially depression, may persist even when they achieve a euthyroid state [ 15 ].

The hypothyroidism is usually temporary because the thyroid hypothyroidism and depression is not destroyed. Symptom relief typically occurs within six to 12 weeks of starting the medication but therapy usually continues for at least a year. Doctors usually suspect hypothyroidism on the basis of the symptoms and findings on physical examination, including a slow pulse. The earlier you detect the symptoms and bring your concerns to your doctor's attention, the sooner you can begin receiving proper treatment to manage this thyroid disorder. Thyroid hormones affect many vital body functions, such as the heart rate, the rate at which calories are burned, skin maintenance, growth, heat production, fertility, and digestion.

Was this page helpful? Google Scholar. The evidence for a narrower thyrotropin reference range is compelling. Participants who were taking medications that could affect the thyroid function, were undergoing treatment for cancer, or had depression at baseline were excluded. Zhang et al.

The earlier you detect the symptoms and bring your concerns to your doctor's attention, the sooner you can begin receiving proper treatment to manage this thyroid disorder. Tell your family members. Ranitidine Withdrawn from US Market. Sponsored By. Test your knowledge.

Inadequate levothyroxine replacement for primary hypothyroidism is associated with poor health-related quality of life-a Brazilian multicentre study. There was no association with depression by category of thyroid function. PubMed Google Scholar.

Therefore, it is important to consider various factors in thyroid follicles in hypothyroidism and depression a TSH cut-off value. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Deprezsion. Also, the severity of depression symptoms was found to be correlated with the level of serum thyroid stimulating hormone TSH. The present study suggests that a clinically helpful TSH cut-off value for hypothyroidism should be based on associated symptoms, not just in population studies. Use of thyroid hormone for depression treatment has been controversial for a long time.

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Article Google Scholar Participants who were taking medications that could affect the thyroid function, were undergoing treatment for cancer, or had depression at baseline were excluded. American Thyroid Association. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Get our free guide when you sign up for our newsletter. The study population was composed of hypothyroid patients female: ,

Doctors usually suspect hypothyroidism on the basis of the symptoms and findings on physical examination, including a slow pulse. Thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid gland, usually caused by an autoimmune attack or by a viral infection. Hashimoto thyroiditis : Hypothyroidism develops as the thyroid is gradually destroyed. Pituitary or hypothalamic disease: Because the thyroid is regulated by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, injury to or dysfunction in these areas may cause the thyroid to become underactive, causing a condition known as secondary hypothyroidism or tertiary hypothyroidism. The antibodies that attack the thyroid often also attack the tissue behind the eyes, a condition known as Graves' ophthalmopathy or thyroid eye disease. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge. Tell your family members.

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