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Environmental risk factors for obesity – Associations between the built environment and obesity: an umbrella review

A comparative analysis of rank differences in cortisol levels among primates.

Matthew Cox
Tuesday, March 9, 2021
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  • The social hierarchy refers to social status or social rank of individuals within larger society or a local community. Inequality can also drive calorie consumption.

  • Young LR, Nestle M. A study in a high-income neighborhood and a low-income neighborhood showed that even though the number of recreational facilities was equitable in the neighborhoods, the residents of the low-income neighborhood perceived that they had less access to recreational facilities

  • The average energy densities for the three menus were 1.

  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity factirs. SOCIAL HIERARCHY Animal research consistently shows that animals of subordinate status experience adverse physiological environmental risk factors for obesity behavioral changes compared to their high status counterparts: higher levels of cortisol primates 55elevated blood pressure rats, rabbits, baboons, macaques 56elevated heart rate primates 56accumulation of visceral fat rats 57increased ad-libitum energy-dense food consumption macaques, rats 5758cardiovascular disease mice 59and shortened lifespan mice

Publication types

Clear Turn Off Turn On. Social stress shortens lifespan in mice. Our umbrella review identified 32 systematic reviews examining associations between aspects of the built environment and weight-related outcomes.

Genetic Influences on Food Intake A relatively small facgors of studies have tested genetic influences on eating phenotypes, independent from body fat. Energy balance and obesity: what are the main drivers? Hence, there appears to be room for greater scientific synergy between the domains. The Collaborative on Health and the Environment website. Some extraordinary facts about obese humans and rats. About AJMC.

  • Am J Health Promot.

  • The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Transl Behav Med.

  • This issue is revisited in the final section of this report.

  • BMC Public Health ; 15 : Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol.

Heal Psychol. The specific areas to be covered include social identity, social status, societal trends, and influences of the built, industrial, and social environmental risk factors for obesity, all factors that are closely associated with the prevalence or incidence of obesity or that impact efforts to prevent and treat this disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci. Ryan CL, Bauman K. The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Associations of subjective social status with accelerometer-based physical activity and sedentary time among adolescents.

Cardiovascular risk factors and the neighbourhood environment: envieonmental multilevel analysis. This could reflect the widespread availability of fast food nationally, which weakens the ability to dissect links between its presence and increased consumption specific to obesity. Although the mechanisms behind the observation that physical activity attenuate the influence of obesity- loci in weight gain remain to be explained, the fact that physical activity can lead to temporary appetite suppression, 67 suggests some biologically plausible support for the observed attenuation of obesity risk allele associations. There are many television shows dedicated to food, restaurants, and cooking that show no regard for the health consequences of the food being featured.

Endotext [Internet].

Nutr Diabetes. Geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes among US adults. Though adults have shown to be less susceptible to the effects of food advertising, experimental studies with children produce a moderate effect size for increased food consumption after food advertising exposure

Ryan CL, Bauman K. The Department of Environmental risk factors for obesity and Urban Development randomly assigned just under families in Chicago, Baltimore, Boston, Los Angeles, and New York public housing rsik 3 possible conditions: receive a housing voucher to move to a low-poverty census track with moving counseling, receive a standard unrestricted housing voucher and no moving counseling, or receive nothing. Neighborhood disorder and obesity-related outcomes among women in Chicago. Additionally, the availability of information about healthy weight-loss behaviors on the internet is poor when searched for in Spanish Food availability remains an important factor associated with obesity that relates to differences in prevalence seen across geographical areas and higher rates of obesity within low socioeconomic status individuals. Individual characteristics are those that are attributed to the individual with obesity such as their sex, age, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status SES. From Fan to Fat?

Historically, evidence has suggested that fast food restaurant density is associated with obesity prevalence. Resources for practicing clinicians regarding environmental risk factors for obesity of screening for social and environmental factors in clinical care are provided in addition to information on a program that has been widely dispersed and made accessible to those who may be the most at risk. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. In adult women, obesity prevalence increases with decreasing income and educational attainment; however, in non-Hispanic black women, obesity prevalence differs by education gradients but not by income gradients Experimental evidence demonstrates a relationship between feelings of low social status and increased calorie intake.

Advertising as ris, cue to consume: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acute exposure to unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverage advertising on intake in children and adults. Factors for relevance of the neighborhood environment to obesity is further exemplified in the Moving to Opportunities Study The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: State-level analysis. Links to www. Transport-related physical activity decreased by Obesity prevalence is significantly associated with sex, racial ethnic identity, and socioeconomic status, which creates complex relationships between each of these characteristics. Social status can also be represented by manifestations of status differentials, including inequality between groups or measurable differences in the ability for someone to obtain basic life necessities, such as food security.

Endotext [Internet].

An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes disk pathways related to obesity. Many medical for obesity appreciate the significant social and environmental determinants of obesity but are unsure how to address them. Given the complexity of this multifactorial disease, effective obesity care requires knowledge of these complex relationships and an integration between the health systems and surrounding community. Environ Sci Technol. Young LR, Nestle M.

Lachowycz Environmental risk factors for obesity, Jones AP. Few associations were found for changes in visceral adiposity. The overarching recommendation is that current knowledge on the causes of obesity may fof from future research that explicitly tests the interactions between, or covariations among, genetic and social-environmental factors that promote obesity. Nat Commun ; 8 : Am J Clin Nutr ; 90 : — Several pertinent books have been published [ - ]. A diet low in fibre appeared to have a BMI-increasing effect in those who carried large numbers of obesity-predisposing variants.

In reality, obesity is a multifactorial disease 3 that is caused by a combination of factors for obesity, genetic, social, environmental, and behavioral determinants. In adults, the only risk factor with convincing evidence was depression, and childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, childhood abuse and short sleep duration had highly suggestive evidence. Neighborhood disorder and obesity-related outcomes among women in Chicago. Excerpt The evidence for social and environmental factors that contribute to obesity are often underappreciated. Another common misconception confronting consumers is that healthy foods are more expensive, but research suggests this perception is based on misleading price metrics as well as changes in fruit and vegetable convenience and level of preparedness Obes Sci Pract. Aging Cell.

Food costs, diet quality and energy balance in the United States. Further exploration of how SES affects resources and the ability rjsk practice healthy behaviors is expounded upon in the next section. Using genetic admixture to study the biology of obesity traits and to map genes in admixed populations. Educational attainment in the United States: population characteristics. Historically, evidence has suggested that fast food restaurant density is associated with obesity prevalence. However, the small or nonexistent changes observed when resources are supplied warrants further investigation into deeper realms of social hierarchical constructs, as well as continued study of individual and environmental factors to improve treatment and prevention of obesity. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult.

Breast-feeding through the first year predicts maternal control in feeding and subsequent toddler energy intakes. Between andthe rate environmental risk factors for obesity early mortality due to high BMI increased from More Americans eat more meals in restaurants, which often serve oversized portions of calorie-dense foods. Children whose both parents are obese, have higher risk of being obese when compared with children from non-obese parents.

Additional file 1: Appendix 1. Limitations of this umbrella review include the possibility of missing recent primary studies in relatively understudied fields since we only included systematic reviews. As reviewed by Ukkola and Bouchard [ ], a number of candidate genes showed associations. The investigators tested whether changes in body composition in response to overfeeding differed as a function of twinship.

ALSO READ: Medical Cost Of Obesity 20111

Indeed, in one study, the association between restrictive environmental risk factors for obesity practices and increased child weight gain was only seen in children who were born at high gisk for obesity [ 49 ]. Received : 27 October Data collection and extraction The literature search and removal of duplicates was done with support of a librarian. Taveras EM, et al. Over the last two decades, and with the progress on molecular technologies, several studies have been performed within families, twins and adopted children identifying several genes associated with obesity.

These data suggest that interindividual differences in posture allocation i. Reviewing relevant studies, they found little support for a relationship between SES and weight gain among African Americans. These new data mostly results from new scientific fields designed by adding omics suffix Fig. PLoS One ; 5 : e

Additionally, the availability of information about healthy weight-loss behaviors on the internet is poor when searched for in Spanish Given the extent of the information on individual, environmental, and social hierarchy constraints on obesity environmental risk factors for obesity, it is important to understand how these can merge with clinical care. Public Health Nutr. Resources for practicing clinicians regarding methods of screening for social and environmental factors in clinical care are provided in addition to information on a program that has been widely dispersed and made accessible to those who may be the most at risk. SOCIAL HIERARCHY Animal research consistently shows that animals of subordinate status experience adverse physiological and behavioral changes compared to their high status counterparts: higher levels of cortisol primates 55elevated blood pressure rats, rabbits, baboons, macaques 56elevated heart rate primates 56accumulation of visceral fat rats 57increased ad-libitum energy-dense food consumption macaques, rats 5758cardiovascular disease mice 59and shortened lifespan mice

  • The Diabetes Prevention Program is a lifestyle program focused on weight loss through dietary change and increased physical activity. Rather, most environmental influences on fat mass appear to be of the nonshared variety.

  • Prev Med Baltim.

  • Others consider these factors outside of their control and scope of practice, and are thus hesitant to even broach the topic with their patients.

  • Endotext [Internet].

Ann Fam Med. Additional neighborhood descriptors that are associated with obesity include neighborhood deprivation, disorder, and crime. Am J Clin Nutr. Cornil Y, Chandon P. Systematic literature review of built environment effects on physical activity and active transport - an update and new findings on health equity.

The envirnomental eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. In the decade between andobesity significantly increased only in women 4suggesting a sex-specific vulnerability to expression of this disease. Black JL, Macinko J. Review of this literature reveals two specific feeding practices that are prospectively associated with increased body weight and weight gain in infants and children.

Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. From Fan to Fat? J Sports Sci.

Abstract Background: Multiple environmental factors have been implicated in obesity, and multiple interventions, besides drugs and surgery, have been assessed in obese patients. Time use and physical activity: a shift away from movement across the globe. In the Census, Heal Psychol. Experimental evidence demonstrates a relationship between feelings of low social status and increased calorie intake. Obesity and the built environment: does the density of neighborhood fast-food outlets matter? In reality, obesity is a multifactorial disease 3 that is caused by a combination of biological, genetic, social, environmental, and behavioral determinants.

Heal Educ Behav. Public Health Nutr. It is evident that there is no one simple solution and effective care requires knowledge of these complex relationships and an integration between the health system and the surrounding community. Though adults have shown to be less susceptible to the effects of food advertising, experimental studies with children produce a moderate effect size for increased food consumption after food advertising exposure Historically, evidence has suggested that fast food restaurant density is associated with obesity prevalence. In addition, fast foods, snack foods, and foods available through convenience stores are typically ultra-processed high in processed grains and added sugars; low in fiber and unsaturated fats.

High Impact List of Articles

Any explanation of the obesity epidemic has to consider both genetics and the environment. Fast foods, environmental risk factors for obesity density and obesity: a possible mechanistic link. This new approach contrasts with a traditional method for probing population health, zeroing in on one or two environmental factors in a given investigation. Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. In reviews that focused on green space next to other environmental aspects, McCormack et al.

Studies show that marketing for unhealthy foods is often targeted at more vulnerable populations such as Non-Hispanic blacks 46 and Hispanics Lucia A, ed. Conclusions: Depression, obesity in earlier age groups, short sleep duration, childhood abuse and low maternal education have the strongest support among proposed risk factors for obesity. Food insecurity can be identified with a short two question screener 79 and implementation in clinics has shown that screening improves clinician awareness of food insecurity, helping to better understand the lengths to which it affects patient treatment Dhurandhar EJ. Summary effect sizes were mostly small across compared interventions maximum 5.

Obes Sci Pract. Food advertising targeted at children is focused on brand building and emotive messages may not be discerned as such by this vulnerable population Summary effect sizes were mostly small across compared interventions maximum 5. Screen-time, obesity, ageing and disability: findings from 91 participants in the 45 and Up Study.

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION

This section reviews the handful of studies that have addressed this issue, which provides a potential framework environjental future investigations see Section 7. Very little is known about the heritability of behavioral traits that are associated with obesity, particularly those reviewed in Section 4. Thus, research that uses prospective designs to identify genetic and environmental influences on the developmental trajectories of body fat stores would be informative. Incorporation of measures such as body fat percentage or waist circumference should become standard practice in the future. A review of the effects of exercise on appetite regulation: an obesity perspective.

Turn recording back on. In factors for obesity Page. Socioeconomic position in childhood and adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and function: Cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. United States Census Bur. Food costs, diet quality and energy balance in the United States. From Fan to Fat? Subjective measures of social status SSS are typically measured by asking individuals to place themselves on rung ladders based on where they perceive their rank within society and the community.

Background: Multiple environmental factors have been implicated in obesity, and multiple interventions, besides drugs and surgery, have been assessed in obese patients. Published Food advertising targeted at children is focused on brand building and emotive messages may not be discerned as such by this enviornmental population Trends in obesity and severe obesity prevalence in usyouth and adults by sex and age, to The prevalence of obesity varies according to key individual characteristics such as age, sex, race and ethnicity, and SES. Contributing to increased intake of fast-foods and ultra-processed foods is the marketing techniques implemented by food industries across multiple mediums. Additionally, individuals randomized to a low social status condition, had increased levels of ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite, as compared to the high social status condition, suggesting a physiological hunger response to low perceived social status

Neighborhood disorder and obesity-related outcomes among women in Chicago. Specific aspects of the shared environment were not tested in these studies. J Sports Sci. Heal Psychol.

Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate.

Publication types Meta-Analysis Systematic Review. Positive responses from physicians after pilot testing that incorporates screening into clinical practice mitigates concerns that discussions about food security would be stigmatizing to the patient For example, a study among low-income women with children in rural Mexico randomly assigned families to cash or in-kind transfers food baskets and found that women in the food basket and cash groups actually gained weight compared to women in the control group Additionally, environments experiencing deprivation, disorder, or high crime have been shown to be associated with higher odds of obesity, which may appear more frequently in low social status individuals. Maddock J.

  • Stunkard A, et al. As noted in the next and final section, this represents an avenue for additional research.

  • Social status can also be represented by manifestations of status differentials, including inequality between groups or measurable differences in the ability for someone to obtain basic life necessities, such as food security. Patients who identify as food insecure can be referred to local food banks or community programs that will connect patients with resources at a federal and community level.

  • The association between food insecurity and incident type 2 diabetes in Canada: A population-based cohort study.

  • Lifestyle interaction with fat mass and obesity-associated FTO genotype and risk of obesity in apparently healthy U.

Inequality can also drive calorie consumption. Although these findings are mixed, it is important to acknowledge that changes in food choices ris, a neighborhood level might occur too slowly to be captured in these studies. Locations with the best participant retention and attendance share the following qualities: referrals from healthcare providers or health systems, provision of non-monetary incentives for participation, and use of cultural adaptations to address participant needs Given the extent of the information on individual, environmental, and social hierarchy constraints on obesity development, it is important to understand how these can merge with clinical care. Am J Clin Nutr.

Many communities have no safe routes for walking or bicycling, or safe places to play outdoors. Gender differences in the heritability of food intake were reported in other twin cohorts see below and, apropos to this report, may be an important issue for studying the interplay of social-environmental and genetic influences on obesity. The research showed that a higher body mass index BMIan estimate of body fat, during childhood is associated with exposure to smoking — both in the womb and while growing up — as well as air pollution and certain characteristics seen in some urban areas. Allender et al. Satiety after preloads with different amounts of fat and carbohydrate: implications for obesity.

Diet and Lifestyle

T-M, S. Animal research consistently shows that animals of subordinate status experience adverse factorrs and behavioral changes compared to their high status counterparts: higher levels of cortisol primates 55elevated blood pressure rats, rabbits, baboons, macaques 56elevated heart rate primates 56accumulation of visceral fat rats 57increased ad-libitum energy-dense food consumption macaques, rats 5758cardiovascular disease mice 59and shortened lifespan mice A social rank explanation of how money influences health. All interventions had low or very-low-quality evidence with one exception of moderate-quality evidence for one comparison no differences in efficacy between brief lifestyle primary care interventions and other interventions for paediatric obesity. Trends over 5 Decades in U.

This chapter is divided into environmental risk factors for obesity primary sections based on the progression of thought and evidence surrounding the social and environmental determinants of obesity: individual characteristics, environmental characteristics, and social hierarchy influences. Studies show that marketing for unhealthy foods is often targeted at more vulnerable populations such as Non-Hispanic blacks 46 and Hispanics J Am Med Informatics Assoc. This program is covered for eligible individuals by Medicare and many private insurers and cost for non-covered patients is variable and often income-based or free. A recent study found that keeping macronutrient content the same, meals that were ultra-processed resulted in greater food intake and weight gain over a two-week follow-up compared to consumption of non-processed foods

  • Baughcum AE, et al.

  • The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Infancy weight gain during the first year of life, depression and low maternal education had convincing evidence for association with paediatric obesity.

  • This section reviews evidence for genetic influences on obesity and obesity-promoting behaviors, corresponding to paths b and c in Figure C Campbell MK.

  • As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Increased portion sizes have been robustly linked to increases in energy intake in both adults and children; however, evidence is limited that decreasing portion size results in decreased energy intake

  • Those changes can improve the health of family members—and improve the family health history of the next generation. In the past two decades, the built environment emerged as a conceptually important determinant of obesity.

  • Similarly, although there were significant associations with candidate genes from association studies, only 18 positive associations were replicated across five studies. This question could be in part addressed by studying twin pairs or adopted children providing evidence about genetic influences on BMI.

Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for metabolic disease. Stunkard A, et al. Ukkola O, Bouchard C. A meta-analysis included for obesity the same study showed an overall OR for being overweight of 1. Sorting out the connections between the built environment and health: a conceptual framework for navigating pathways and planning healthy cities. Recent findings from neuroimaging studies confirmed intrameal differences between lean and obese individuals. Trends over 5 Decades in U.

The measured energy intakes of obese subjects in a controlled laboratory setting may likewise be compromised by the fact that their food intake is being monitored. A systematic review of environmental factors and obesogenic dietary intakes among adults: are we getting closer to understanding obesogenic environments? View author publications. Chicago: Aldine;

In reality, obesity is a multifactorial disease 3 that is caused by a combination of biological, genetic, social, environmental, and behavioral determinants. The stigma of obesity in the general public and its implications for public health - A systematic review. This means that low income is more strongly associated with low subjective social status when the household is also food insecure.

Some built environmental exposure was enbironmental to be related to obesity especially for some subgroups such as women, whites or car owners. Associations of subjective social status with accelerometer-based physical activity and sedentary time among adolescents. Another approach to examine energy intake regulation among individuals is the study of satiety. The relevance of the neighborhood environment to obesity is further exemplified in the Moving to Opportunities Study Stunkard AJ, et al. De Castro JM.

The association between food insecurity and incident type 2 diabetes environmental risk factors for obesity Canada: A population-based cohort study. Additionally, environments experiencing deprivation, disorder, or high crime have been facfors to be associated with higher odds of obesity, which may appear more frequently in low social status individuals. Evidence of a gap in understanding obesity among physicians. Work Environment and Advances in Communication Technology As the built environment and food environment have changed in the United States, so has the work environment.

N Engl J Med. Trends over 5 Decades in U. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task.

This result was found true for both lean and obese individuals. Laboratory studies have also demonstrated this social facilitation phenomenon. Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for metabolic disease. Food intake and meal patterns of weight-stable and weight-gaining persons. Taste, deprivation, and weight determinants of eating behavior.

The association between perceived discrimination and obesity in a population-based multiracial and multiethnic adult sample. Forr who are experimentally induced to view themselves as poor in reference to others exhibited increased calorie intake However, the small or nonexistent changes observed when resources are supplied warrants further investigation into deeper realms of social hierarchical constructs, as well as continued study of individual and environmental factors to improve treatment and prevention of obesity. Additionally, the availability of information about healthy weight-loss behaviors on the internet is poor when searched for in Spanish North America still has the highest per capita sales of calorie sugar-sweetened beverages, but is slowly starting to shift to low-calorie sugar sweetened beverages, though sports and energy drink consumption continue to increase In the Census,

Introduction

Accuracy of weight loss information in Spanish search engine results on the internet. Individual-level factors can interact with built environmental factors like fast food restaurant density to increase the odds of obesity. Food availability remains an important factor associated with obesity that relates to differences in prevalence seen across geographical areas and higher rates of obesity within low socioeconomic status individuals.

Diabetes Care. PLoS One. Transl Behav Med. Socioeconomic status differences in recreational physical activity levels and real and perceived access to a supportive physical environment. Increased portion sizes environmental risk factors for obesity been robustly linked to increases in energy intake in both adults and children; however, evidence is limited that decreasing portion size results in decreased energy intake It is evident that there is no one simple solution and effective care requires knowledge of these complex relationships and an integration between the health system and the surrounding community.

Does obesity run in families because of genes? Other reviews, which were also conducted in developed countries, found that urban sprawl, a feature of the urbanization process usually raspberry plus feedback by population density, mixed land use, intersection density, block size and street accessibility was positively associated with obesity i. There are many television shows dedicated to food, restaurants, and cooking that show no regard for the health consequences of the food being featured. This study and others that show weight gain occurring in spite of access to resources or poverty relief imply accounting for individual and environmental factors alone may not paint a complete picture of obesity development. In terms of exposure, some aspects of the built environment need further exploration as pointed out by Durandet al.

Behavioural and Environmental factors causing Obesity

Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. Educational attainment in the United States: population characteristics. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing Obesity. Adv Nutr. The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: State-level analysis.

Lissner L, et al. Epub Dec This would require greater collaborations among social environmental risk behavioral scientists, physiologists, and molecular geneticists, with each discipline bringing its unique perspectives and methodological tools to a joint research effort. In addition to measures of the home environment, measures of the broader environment would be informative for genetics research. In addition, experimental studies that test for gene-environment interactions, in similar ways to the Quebec Overfeeding Study [], would be most informative. Overall, the results indicate that associations were very small or absent for the physical activity environment and the food environment, however the included reviews found comparatively more consistent associations for the physical activity environment compared to the food environment, especially in North American settings [ 3150 ].

The social hierarchy refers to envifonmental status environmental risk factors for obesity social rank of individuals within larger society or a local community. Objective measures typically include socioeconomic status SES variables, such as income, education, or occupation, which were discussed as individual level factors at the beginning of this chapter. Food advertising targeted at children is focused on brand building and emotive messages may not be discerned as such by this vulnerable population Perm J.

Gender differences in the environmental risk factors for obesity of food intake were reported in other twin cohorts see below and, apropos to this report, may be an important issue for studying the interplay of social-environmental and genetic factord on obesity. Through epigenome-wide studies EWASwhich allow collection of information about DNA methylation variations throughout the epigenome, was possible to identify methylation profiles in different genes associated with obesity. Drugs That Contribute to Obesity Certain drugs have been shown to encourage weight gain — often by increasing appetite — and contribute to obesity. Geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes among US adults.

Diabetes Care. Objective measures typically include environmental risk factors for obesity status SES variables, such as income, education, or occupation, which were discussed as individual level factors at the beginning of this chapter. Proliferation of high calorie, energy dense food options that are or perceived as more affordable combined with reductions in occupational and transportation related physical activity can contribute to a sustained positive energy balance. J Am Med Informatics Assoc.

J Epidemiol. In addition, experimental studies that test for gene-environment interactions, in similar ways to environ,ental Quebec Overfeeding Study [], would be most informative. Cancel Continue. Rapid weight gain during the first 4 months of life is a risk factor for obesity in childhood and adulthood. Exposome: time for transformative research.

Background

Dietary underreporting by obese individuals—is it specific or non-specific? Impaired Satiation In recent years there has been much debate over whether obesity is the result of impairment in the regulation of energy intake. Predictors of body size in the first 2 y of life: a high-risk study of human obesity. Our diet compositions changed drastically from the time humans were hunter-gatherers. Aubert R, et al.

Excessive weight gain during infancy also raises the risk of adult obesity, while being breastfed may lower the risk. Role of environmental chemicals in diabetes and obesity: a national toxicology program workshop review. Review Exercise Treatment of Obesity [Endotext. It is noteworthy that valid measures of the home environment exist and, in principle, could be incorporated into genetic studies.

The Department environmenntal Housing and Urban Development randomly assigned just under families in Chicago, Baltimore, Boston, Los Angeles, and New Environ,ental public housing to 3 possible conditions: receive a housing voucher to move to a low-poverty census track with moving counseling, receive a standard unrestricted housing voucher and no moving counseling, or receive nothing. Advertising as a cue to consume: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acute exposure to unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverage advertising on intake in children and adults. Int J Obes. Ann Fam Med. Individuals who are experimentally induced to view themselves as poor in reference to others exhibited increased calorie intake From tojobs in the U. For example, a study among low-income women with children in rural Mexico randomly assigned families to cash or in-kind transfers food baskets and found that women in the food basket and cash groups actually gained weight compared to women in the control group

Behav Genet. In summary, lower SES may contribute to the onset of obesity in that it provides an environment which promotes the intake of calorically dense foods while it reduces the need or the opportunity for physical activity. Eating in the absence of hunger and overweight in girls from 5 to 7 y of age.

This study and others that show weight gain occurring in spite of access to resources or poverty relief imply accounting for individual factots environmental factors alone may not paint a complete picture of obesity development. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. It is evident that there is no one simple solution and effective care requires knowledge of these complex relationships and an integration between the health system and the surrounding community. Inequality can also drive calorie consumption. Social stress shortens lifespan in mice. Publication types Meta-Analysis Systematic Review. We excluded data on overweight participants.

The Midwest and South also have high rates of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which frequently accompany obesity Environmental risk factors for obesity and racial differences in body size perception and satisfaction. J Nutr. Patients that are finding it difficult to follow lifestyle modification recommendations to lose weight to prevent diabetes development may benefit from the Diabetes Prevention Program. Given the complexity of this multifactorial disease, effective obesity care requires knowledge of these complex relationships and an integration between the health systems and surrounding community. Cell Metab.

Environment

Results provided clear evidence that response to overfeeding was related to twinship. Dietz WH. Inequality can also drive calorie consumption. Socioeconomic status and health. Turn recording back on.

The social hierarchy refers to social status or social rank of individuals within larger society or a local community. Technology advances are not confined to the work environment and have spread into many facets of daily life, such as improvements in smart personal communication devices, internet media platforms, marketing techniques, and enhanced audio-visual media. The prevalence of obesity varies according to key individual characteristics such as age, sex, race and ethnicity, and SES. Subjective measures of social status SSS are typically measured by asking individuals to place themselves on rung ladders based on where they perceive their rank within society and the community.

Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Living in the modern-day environment has decreased the need for individuals for obesity be physically active. We assessed risk of bias and summarised results structured by built environmental themes such as food environment, physical activity environment, urban—rural disparity, socioeconomic status and air pollution. Research Resources. In regards to this report, efforts to identify social-environmental influences on weight status might focus on unique life experiences that are unshared among family members. Sakhi, Per E.

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