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Fast food in china obesity – Western Fast Food Chains Flourish in China, Rates of Obesity and Diabetes Skyrocket

Table 2.

Matthew Cox
Friday, February 26, 2021
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  • The increasing influence of foreign enterprises has enhanced the domestic FF industry development and modernization by introducing new operation models and food concepts.

  • Table 4.

  • First, only children had complete follow-up data. The number of U.

MeSH terms

Food intake was assessed using questionnaire. Nago E. This also indicates how American FF culture has influenced consumers in China [ 4 ].

Archived from the original on 6 March Rapid motorization has drastically reduced levels of cycling and walking in China. FFC has been linked with adverse dietary quality and health conditions. Very limited longitudinal studies have been conducted to examine the effect of FFC on weight status in children, and no study has been conducted in Chinese children[ 12 ]. One of our recent studies shows that the density of neighborhood restaurants was associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults[ 29 ].

  • Conclusions FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during — Pediatr Nephrol.

  • The EatSmart School Campaigna program run by the Chinese Department of Health, assists primary schools that want to create a more sustainable, healthy food environment. Conclusions: The prevalence of fast food consumption, obesity and hypertension is high among children in major cities in China.

  • Data were collected through questionnaires and direct measurements i.

  • For example, taxing FF and subsidizing healthy food consumption is paid increased attention in developed countries. Trends in Fast Food Consumption Table 2 presents the time trends in the proportion of fast food consumers by socio-demographics, lifestyles and weight status for the same cohort aged 6—

  • Abete I. The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet?

In addition to these behavioral factors, multistructural variables e. Setting Obezity data from families were collected in the and China Health and Nutrition Survey covering nine provinces throughout China. They are predominately cross-sectional studies and are based on local samples. Ann Glob Health. Some questions remain unclear such as: how has FF intake increased in China?

PLoS One 9: e Among the 39 identified titles, 11 longitudinal and cross-sectional studies conducted in China fast food in china obesity inclusion criteria [ 715161718192021222324 ]. Conclusions The rapid growth of the FF industry and FFC in China has become a public health concerns considering the negative health consequences of FFC, including related obesity risks. Interestingly, the FFC rate decreased in the children from high-income families, but those from low- and medium-income families increased their FFC. Never miss an article: Sign up and join more thanFood Tank newsletter subscribers:. Over two million FF facilities operated throughout China in Children included in the analytic sample were similar to those in the non-analytic sample except they were younger, had lower in-school physical activity levels and were less sedentary.

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We conducted both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses fast food in china obesity longitudinal survey data collected in the and China Health and Nutrition Survey CHNSwhich covered nine provinces throughout China[ 15 ]. Abstract Background: China has seen rapid increase in obesity and hypertension prevalence and fast food consumption over the past decade. One of our recent studies shows that the density of neighborhood restaurants was associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults[ 29 ].

In contrast, a traditional rural Chinese diet features plant-based protein, low cholesterol, and some dietary fat. Such spatial-temporal differential patterns mirror the inequalities of regional economic development and reflect the nonlinear effect of income rise on food-away-from-home FAFH consumption. Urban or rural residents depending on the administrative definitions of the communities in which the participants lived. The Chinese Nutrition Society is providing nutrition education by creating dietary guidelines to help consumers make more healthy lifestyle choices.

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For example, since the first American fast food chain, Kentucky Fried Chicken KFCopened its first restaurant in China inthe number of KFC restaurants fast food in china obesity increased to over 4, tast more than pbesity and towns by [ 9 ]. However, longitudinal studies regarding the relationship between FF and weight status is still largely lacking in the literature. Many people enjoy eating out with their families or friends and often combine eating out including eating in a FF restaurant with other activities such as shopping and seeing movies. Government regulation and public health education need to address the health consequences of rapidly increasing FFC. InMalan Noodle had over chain stores in China [ 28 ]; b Chinese-style rice sets, quick-service restaurants and take-out facilities operate independently and are located in various settings including shopping centers and streets. Fast food and obesity: A spatial analysis in a large United Kingdom population of children aged 13— Of course, fast food consumption is only one piece of a larger puzzle.

While the percentage consumed increased dramatically in the Northeast obesith Analysis was conducted using Stata Version Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 74— Further linear and logistic regression analysis Table 4 examined the longitudinal associations between FFC and BMI z-score and weight status, and stratified by gender. In general, as age increased, more children had consumed Western fast food, while the consumption prevalence in young children did not change much.

  • Zhang X, van der Lans I, Dagevos H Impacts of fast food and the food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach. Restaurants China.

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  • The changes have exacerbated the shifts from traditional eating patterns to more modern including Westernized eating patterns featuring high-energy density, high-fat, and low fiber diets [ 56 ]. Consent for publication Not applicable.

  • With growing incomes in Chinese society, families are now able to afford these unhealthy but highly desired foods resulting in increasing rates of consumption of high-fat diets. Many Chinese people believe the way they advance in life is getting a better education so they can get a better job.

In fact, it needs to be reversed completely so that developing countries like China do not fall victim to the same chronic diseases we know so well in the U. Restaurants China. Then, school was included in the models as a random effect intercept. Int J Pediatr Obes. Foreign enterprises have intensified the FF industry competition and posed challenges for local restaurants. For children aged 13—17, there was a dramatic increase Moreover, only a few cohort studies have tested the influence of FFC on obesity [ 1314 ].

JAMA — This finding is likely because adolescents who had entered middle gast high schools had china obesity autonomy and pocket money, and were more likely to be under peer influence than younger kids [ 2324 ]. We have not observed such pattern in rural areas yet, likely because of nonlinear income effects at different threshold levels. Obesity Research

1. Introduction

Archived from the original on 6 March Among children aged 6—10, it did foid change much, but it more than tripled among ethnic minorities 5. Efforts are needed to study the impact of FFC on health outcomes, as well as the methods to promote healthy eating among young people in China. American journal of health behavior —

  • The fast-food FF industry and obesity rates have rapidly increased in China. The same trends existed among the urban and rural residents.

  • Ethnic groups were dichotomized into Han or not, as Han is the majority ethnic group in China, while some minority groups share different habits and norms. Obesity Research

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Sincerapid economic china obesity has transformed China from a destitute nation to one of largest economies in the world. Additionally, the rate of diabetes among Chinese adolescents aged 12 to 18 was about four times that of American teenagers. Public health nutrition 88— The same trends existed among the urban and rural residents. No significant associations between fast food consumption and health outcomes were detected. It decreased significantly in the high-income group

In the U. Though it will certainly prove a complex task, the global image of American fast food as a trendy, modern sign of wealth needs to change. The obwsity utilized the version of Food Composition Table FCT to calculate macronutrient intake values for the dietary data. Note that there were few FF restaurants Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status overweight, obesity and body mass index BMI z-score. She is especially interested in regenerative agriculture and innovative food entrepreneurship.

Publication types

Obesuty second of the two measures was china obesity if the difference between the two was less than 10 mmHg. Some research suggests a positive association while others do not [ 512 ]. Studies have observed the outcomes of laws and policies enacted in other countries to help reduce FFC or encourage FF restaurants to sell healthier foods. Association between usual sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure and hypertension among U. What are the top food and beverage items purchased and consumed from FF restaurants?

Worldwide fastt in childhood overweight and obesity. Today, KFC is the biggest fast-food brand in China, with more than 5, outlets. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods had a higher prevalence of overweight. You can also f ollow us on Twitter. Food products served in Western FF restaurants are often perceived as safer than those served in small, local restaurants.

Reports in and have revealed a direct correlation between ownership of motorized transport by households in China and increasing obesity related problems jn children and adults. Height was measured without shoes to the nearest 0. Fig 1. Int J Pediatr Obes 1: 11— The model was specified as: 1 Where BMI z-score is the dependent variable. The data utilized the version of Food Composition Table FCT to calculate macronutrient intake values for the dietary data. Other dietary intake variables.

China’s healthy eating plan

In high-income urban households, more awareness of health, media influence, and increased demand for high quality food in recent years may have resulted in a decrease in FFC, as FFC fast food be increasingly viewed as unhealthy for children. These policy changes have led to the liberalization of domestic markets and international trade, narrowed the domestic-international price gaps, and stimulated the domestic production and promoted imports, which facilitated the vertical integration of the FF industry and helped largely reduce FF ingredient costs. This result is consistent with the shifted nutrition transition and findings that the burden of obesity and metabolic risk has started to move from the better-off to the poorer population groups in some developing countries [ 25 ].

  • Localization of their menus is a key factor that has promoted the growth of Western FF in competing with local competitors.

  • China is currently trying to utilize community based interventions through The National Plan of Action for Nutrition in China. Obesity is often associated with prosperity, thus there is a need for a widespread attitude shift to decrease the current rising rates.

  • Foreign brands were still a novelty after the restrictions of the Mao Tse-tung era.

Lancet 36— The datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding fast food in china obesity on reasonable request. Are obesiy eating patterns being transformed globally? Second, descriptive analysis was used to provide an overview of the current FFC pattern i. Wang Y, Lobstein T. Lessons learned in China will help other countries. Maternal factors affect child FFC and health outcomes.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from March Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February Browse Subject Areas? In conclusion, more Chinese children have consumed Western fast food over time. Background: China has seen rapid increase in obesity and hypertension prevalence and fast food consumption over the past decade. Our analysis of the nationwide survey data shows that FFC excluding Chinese fast food increased significantly among Chinese school-age children during —, and the increase was especially rapid among some groups such as older children, boys, those from low- and medium-income families, and those from rural areas and East China, compared to their counterparts.

Among children with different weight status, more underweight or normal weight children consumed fast food in Other chima have contributed to childhood obesity in China, such as increased family income and increased consumption of animal-source food [ 28 ]. A study in Obesity Reviews Journal compared the risk of chronic disease in China to other countries, including the U. Trends in Fast Food Consumption Table 2 presents the time trends in the proportion of fast food consumers by socio-demographics, lifestyles and weight status for the same cohort aged 6— In high-income urban households, more awareness of health, media influence, and increased demand for high quality food in recent years may have resulted in a decrease in FFC, as FFC may be increasingly viewed as unhealthy for children. Income groups were categorized based on annual per capita household income tertiles in that wave.

MeSH terms

Oesity same trends existed among the urban and rural residents. Essentially, the single child gets an excessive amount of attention, which often leads to eating a lot of fast food. More future research is needed to study the impact of FFC on public health in China. Annual per capita household income was adjusted to yuan currency values.

Results FFC reported having consumed Western fast food obessity the past three months has increased between andfrom Food policy — Moreover, only a few cohort studies have tested the influence of FFC on obesity [ 1314 ]. Growth in obesity in children has been especially brisk.

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By china obesity the age and period effects, we found different patterns. These findings are likely due to their increased independence and peer influence. Fat farmswhere overweight children try to lose their excess weight, have grown since the s. Add links. Retrieved 7 January The model was specified as: 1. Table 3 shows the trends in the percentage of fast food consumers by socio-demographics, lifestyles and weight status characteristics for participants of the same-age in vs.

  • Studies examining the association between FFC and cbina are predominately conducted in Western countries and many have reported a positive association between the number of FF restaurants and FFC and obesity [ 91011121314 ]. Conclusions: The prevalence of fast food consumption, obesity and hypertension is high among children in major cities in China.

  • Never miss an article: Sign up and join more thanFood Tank newsletter subscribers:. Other Covariates Urbanicity.

  • The low follow-up rate was ulipristal acetate and obesity because children were not at home during the follow-up data collection and some families had moved out of the previous community. The content of the paper is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funders.

  • Archived PDF from the original on 13 July And with the burgers and fries come a host of public health consequences.

BMC Public Health 17, China this fast-food love affair obrsity at a cost. Other characteristics were comparable in and Log In Account. SinceChina has had the highest number of obese adults with the U. The model was specified as: 1 Where BMI z-score is the dependent variable. Reducing sodium intake in children: a public health investment.

China portal. It is known that an increase in income china obesity a greater increase in FAFH expenditure in high-income households than in low-income households in China[ 22 ]. Obesity research — The researchers found that approximately 12 percent of Chinese children and adolescents aged seven to 18 were overweight and about 1. View Article Google Scholar 9.

Background

Fig 1. Categories : Health in China Obesity by country. Obesity Research References 1. Although no country has yet attempted to transform the image of American fast food, perhaps China can take on the challenge.

Am J Clin Nutr — The trends in obesity and chronic disease in China. The Chinese Nutrition Society is chinaa nutrition education by creating dietary guidelines to help consumers make more healthy lifestyle choices. Frontiers of medical and biological engineering: the international journal of the Japan Society of Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering 4: 1. Archived from the original on 7 January It concluded that the association between FFC and weight gain was not clear, but sufficient evidence exists for public health recommendations to limit FFC and facilitate healthier menu selection.

  • Lifestyle changes, including faster pace of work and life, have prompted demand for FF.

  • Table 2.

  • The main strengths of our study include longitudinal analysis and stratified analysis to examine the time trends in FFC and the association between FFC and obesity in Chinese children.

  • The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity. FFC reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months has increased between andfrom

  • Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status overweight, obesity and body mass index BMI z-score.

Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition An elevated BP rate was found in 9. Public health nutrition 88— According to Dr.

Note that there were few FF restaurants Popkin BM Synthesis foodd implications: China's china obesity transition in the context of changes across other low- and middle-income countries. We have not observed such pattern in rural areas yet, likely because of nonlinear income effects at different threshold levels. PLoS One 9: e Ethnic groups were dichotomized into Han or not, as Han is the majority ethnic group in China, while some minority groups share different habits and norms.

Acknowledgments We thank Dr. A total of observations were missing for BMI. Other factors have contributed to childhood obesity in China, such as increased family income and increased consumption of animal-source food [ 28 ]. Retrieved 7 January Browse Subject Areas?

These changes are especially pronounced in Chinese cities, where increase caloric intake has combined with increased automation and transport that has reduced daily physical labor for the average citizen. Perhaps resulting from the famines of generations past, food, specifically high-fat foods, are now seen as a luxurious item. Performed the experiments: XW YW. Efforts are needed to study the impact of FFC on health outcomes, as well as the methods to promote healthy eating among young people in China. Add links. Med Sci Sports Exerc S— China now consumes twice as much meat as the U.

To examine fast food in china obesity FF industry growth in China and key factors that might have contributed to the growth, we searched and analyzed data collected from various sources, including government reports, data released by the industry, and published research papers. Therefore, more studies, especially longitudinal studies based on large national representative samples with exact measures of quantity of FFC intake and its contribution to total daily energy intake, are needed to detect the association between FFC and health outcomes. Localization of their menus is a key factor that has promoted the growth of Western FF in competing with local competitors. In this case, FF bought from supermarket and ate at home may have not been considered.

  • Getting rich and eating out: Consumption of food away from home in urban China.

  • Thus, we included children aged 6 to

  • Some research suggests a positive association while others do not [ 512 ]. That nutrition transition has been the case in China.

  • Get Involved.

  • De-emphasis on sports also plays an important part in the rise of obesity in China. According to Dr.

Fsat franchises such as KFC are thriving. Wang Y, Lobstein T Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Despite these changes in the food environment in China, our findings indicate some large spatial-temporal disparities and time trends in FFC in adolescents between urban and rural regions: urban adolescents had more FFC. Health in China.

Int J Obes Lond — This definition is used throughout the entire article. The trend was different by age group. Retrieved 22 February

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Archived from the original on 27 August Fast food in china obesity, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured. We found that the percentage of fast food consumers decreased from to among children from high- income families, but it increased in both low- and medium- income families. Frontiers of medical and biological engineering: the international journal of the Japan Society of Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering 4: 1.

  • Our analysis of the nationwide survey data shows that FFC excluding Chinese fast food increased significantly among Chinese school-age children during —, and the increase was especially rapid among some groups such as older children, boys, those from low- and medium-income families, and those from rural areas and East China, compared to their counterparts. However, the components, nutrients, and health consequences of Western and Chinese FF may be different.

  • The model was specified as: 1 Where BMI z-score is the dependent variable.

  • The Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities is a longitudinal study aimed at examining the etiology of childhood obesity and chronic diseases in China, especially in its major cities, which have been experiencing rapid economic and social transitions over the past three decades.

  • The Global Burden of Disease study reported that China had 15 million obese children inthe highest number in the world.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment. According to Wang LongdeChinese Vice Minister of Health, the problem is that the population does not have enough awareness and lacks knowledge of nutrition and what constitutes a reasonable diet. The increase was greater in boys Conclusions FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during —

Our estimates suggest that FFC was associated with 0. There has been a strong interest in developing cgina childhood obesity prevention programs[ 6 ]. Methods: Data of students aged View Article Google Scholar 4. Results: Among the children, Table 2. As a nation moving rapidly through an economic and nutrition transition, maybe China will understand the recent links between health and the Western-style diet and begin to reconsider the idealized image of American fast food.

The consumption rate was mostly stable in other groups. We conducted stratified analysis by gender to estimate the association between FFC and BMI z-scores while adjusting for age, household income, urbanicity, region and physical activity. These findings for adults may indicate the complex relationship between FFC and weight outcomes in Chinese children as well. The model was specified as: 1 Where BMI z-score is the dependent variable. Our analysis of the nationwide survey data shows that FFC excluding Chinese fast food increased significantly among Chinese school-age children during —, and the increase was especially rapid among some groups such as older children, boys, those from low- and medium-income families, and those from rural areas and East China, compared to their counterparts. These changes are especially pronounced in Chinese cities, where increase caloric intake has combined with increased automation and transport that has reduced daily physical labor for the average citizen.

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Mixed models were used to examine the associations. Design Cross-sectional cina longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight china obesity overweight, obesity and body mass index BMI z-score. Essentially, the single child gets an excessive amount of attention, which often leads to eating a lot of fast food. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Reports in and have revealed a direct correlation between ownership of motorized transport by households in China and increasing obesity related problems in children and adults.

In general, as age increased, more children had consumed Western fast food, while the consumption prevalence in young children did not change much. FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older fasr, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during — Results FFC reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months has increased between andfrom Obesity Research This program is also an important key in teaching healthy lifestyle strategies that can promote long-term changes in these children's lives. Moreover, FFC is viewed favorably among children.

Ibesity used McNemar tests and Chi-squared tests respectively, to examine if there were any significant differences in terms of the percentage of fast food consumers over time. This finding is likely because adolescents who had entered middle and high schools had more autonomy and pocket money, and were more likely to be under peer influence than younger kids [ 2324 ]. Conclusions FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during — Rosenheck R Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk. Empirical Economics —

The rise in the percentage of fast food consumers was most pronounced chkna the low- and median- income groups CHNS used a multi-stage, random cluster sampling scheme to collect nationally fast food data that covered key public health risk factors and health outcomes, demographic, social and economic factors at the individual, household and community levels[ 16 ]. Conclusions: The prevalence of fast food consumption, obesity and hypertension is high among children in major cities in China. For example, since the first American fast food chain, Kentucky Fried Chicken KFCopened its first restaurant in China inthe number of KFC restaurants has increased to over 4, in more than cities and towns by [ 9 ]. With growing incomes in Chinese society, families are now able to afford these unhealthy but highly desired foods resulting in increasing rates of consumption of high-fat diets.

In China, though, KFC boasted 4, locations ffood only 26 years. Fast food in china obesity has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during — A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. View Article Google Scholar 8.

  • That nutrition transition has been the case in China. Am J Clin Nutr —

  • There has been a strong interest in developing effective childhood obesity prevention programs[ 6 ].

  • This new regulation abolished the legal uncertainty regarding franchising in China, and fast food in china obesity foreign franchisors in the retail, sport, restaurant, hotel and other service industries with business tax exemptions and other preferential tax conditions [ 3 ]. However, in recent years, more Chinese have become aware of some undesirable respects of FF such as that FFC may increase obesity risk.

Obssity percentage of fast food consumers increased in all fat and carbohydrate intake subgroups. Some empirical and review studies have examined the associations between FFC, increased fat and calorie intakes and childhood obesity[ 1231 ]. We conducted both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses using longitudinal survey data collected in the and China Health and Nutrition Survey CHNSwhich covered nine provinces throughout China[ 15 ]. Thus, we included children aged 6 to In high-income urban households, more awareness of health, media influence, and increased demand for high quality food in recent years may have resulted in a decrease in FFC, as FFC may be increasingly viewed as unhealthy for children. Int J Pediatr Obes 5: — First, we explored the FFC patterns among children in China in and

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Table 3 shows the trends in the percentage of fast food consumers by socio-demographics, lifestyles and weight status characteristics for participants of the same-age in vs. In almost all socio-demographic subgroups, as children aged, more respondents reported having consumed fast food in the past three months. View Article Google Scholar 8. Results FFC reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months has increased between andfrom The proportion of fast food consumers rose from Perhaps resulting from the famines of generations past, food, specifically high-fat foods, are now seen as a luxurious item.

The main strengths of our study include longitudinal analysis and stratified analysis to examine the time trends in FFC and obeisty association between FFC and obesity in Chinese children. The authors determined that this policy significantly reduced the number of calories purchased from people fast food in china obesity the high SES neighborhoods as well as those visiting higher SES neighborhoods [ 49 ]. This new regulation abolished the legal uncertainty regarding franchising in China, and encourages foreign franchisors in the retail, sport, restaurant, hotel and other service industries with business tax exemptions and other preferential tax conditions [ 3 ]. There are many unregulated or illegal operators besides the 1. The China Health and Nutrition Survey data reported that hypertension prevalence among children in was Public Health Nutr. Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you.

The recent three decades saw a growing global chlna epidemic; and overweight and obesity rates among children have increased in many countries including China[ 1 — 3 ]. However, during —, FFC increased in rural areas, but decreased in urban areas. Results were similar when Chinese fast food consumption was adjusted for. Longitudinal data from families were collected in the and China Health and Nutrition Survey covering nine provinces throughout China. While these types of campaigns are beneficial and necessary, attitudinal shifts also need to occur in order to effect lasting change in consumption habits.

Interestingly, the FFC rate decreased in the children from high-income families, but those from low- and medium-income families increased their FFC. Background: China has seen rapid increase in obesity and hypertension prevalence and fast food consumption over the past decade. According to Dr. The relationship between Western fast food consumption FFC and weight status remains mixed in the existing literature. Category Asia portal.

Methods Data of students aged 7—16 Among children with different weight status, more underweight or normal weight children consumed fast food in Some limitations should be considered when interpreting our results. Anderson B.

The study also has several limitations. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to fast food in china obesity the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status overweight, obesity and body mass index BMI z-score. Thus, we included children aged 6 to Table 3 shows the trends in the percentage of fast food consumers by socio-demographics, lifestyles and weight status characteristics for participants of the same-age in vs. Longitudinal data from families were collected in the and China Health and Nutrition Survey covering nine provinces throughout China. Fig 1 shows the map of the CHNS coverage for these waves.

Brady Ng. General obesity fast food in china obesity on BMI and abdominal obesity based on waist circumference. Even as some other nations are dast targeted fiscal measures such as taxes on sugary beverages, the Chinese are being misled into thinking that Healthy China will prevent obesity and nutrition-related diseases. Four schools two primary schools and two middle schools were selected at random in each city. In conclusion, more Chinese children have consumed Western fast food over time.

Trends in Fast Food Consumption Table 2 presents the time trends in the proportion of fast food consumers by socio-demographics, lifestyles and weight status for the same cohort aged 6— Materials and Methods Study design We conducted both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses using longitudinal survey data collected in the and China Health and Nutrition Survey CHNSwhich covered nine provinces throughout China[ 15 ]. Obes Rev 9: — Maternal factors affect child outcomes. Performed the experiments: XW YW. Trending Posts.

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While these types of campaigns are beneficial and necessary, attitudinal shifts also need to occur in order to effect lasting change in consumption habits. Mixed models were used to examine the associations. Hua J. Five primary and middle schools, Tianjin, China; data were collected in Our estimates suggest that FFC was associated with 0. Prevalence and behavioral risk factors of overweight and obesity among children aged in Beijing, China.

References 1. Wang Y, Lobstein T Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Rapid motorization has drastically reduced levels of cycling and walking in China. Acknowledgments We thank Dr.

Retrieved 17 March Table 1. We examined status and risk factors for Western- and Chinese fast food consumption and their associations with health outcomes in Chinese children, and examined how maternal factors were associated with child health outcomes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Reprints and Permissions. Int J Obes. Differential associations of fast food and restaurant food consumption with chinw change in body mass index: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Obesity prevalence was much higher in boys than in girls Fast food for family meals: relationships with parent and adolescent food intake, home food availability and weight status.

Acknowledgments We thank Dr. Contact us Submission enquiries: bmcpublichealth biomedcentral. The low follow-up rate was mainly because children were not at home during the follow-up data collection and fasr families had moved out of the previous community. Eur J Clin Nutr. Patterns of obesogenic neighborhood features and adolescent overweight: A comparison of statistical approaches. The changes have exacerbated the shifts from traditional eating patterns to more modern including Westernized eating patterns featuring high-energy density, high-fat, and low fiber diets [ 56 ].

WesternFFC, excluding Chinese fast food. Table 1. Kamada T System biomedicine: a new paradigm in biomedical engineering. The emphasis on schoolwork and the pressure to do so much into that direction keeps children away from play and from physical activity.

American fast food chains serve consumers Western-style food products: high in saturated fat, simple carbohydrates, and ih, with a lot of processing and little nutritional density. Note that in our models, since the prevalence of obesity was low, we combined the prevalence of overweight and obesity. In this case, other Western fast food restaurants may have not been taken into account. Judy Bankman is a public health professional and freelance writer focusing on the intersection of agriculture, health, and the environment.

This study examined the changes fasf time in FFC and tested the association between FFC and obesity including overweight among children in China using nationwide longitudinal data. American fast food chains serve consumers Western-style food products: high in saturated fat, simple carbohydrates, and sugar, with a lot of processing and little nutritional density. Retrieved 22 April Study the trends in Western fast food consumption FFC among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data. We examined FFC patterns among children who participated in both waves in andand later looked at children of the same age cohort in both waves.

Zhang X, van der Lans I, Dagevos H Impacts of fast food and the food retail environment on overweight and obesity dast China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 8 August China now consumes twice as much meat as the U. Further linear and logistic regression analysis Table 4 examined the longitudinal associations between FFC and BMI z-score and weight status, and stratified by gender.

Reprints and Permissions. The food retailing environment just used the number of food operating business as an indicator, but did obesuty take account into the type of food or operation [ 20 ]. The fast expansion of the FF industry has made it much easier for consumers to access FF at relatively lower costs, including lower price, time saved, and travel convenience. Additionally, the rate of diabetes among Chinese adolescents aged 12 to 18 was about four times that of American teenagers. Conclusions: The prevalence of fast food consumption, obesity and hypertension is high among children in major cities in China. Never miss an article: Sign up and join more thanFood Tank newsletter subscribers:.

However, most of cjina findings were based on studies conducted in china obesity countries such as the United States. Retrieved 17 March Rapid motorization has drastically reduced levels of cycling and walking in China. This program is also an important key in teaching healthy lifestyle strategies that can promote long-term changes in these children's lives. Archived from the original on 27 August

General obesity china on BMI and abdominal obesity based on waist circumference. It concluded that the association between FFC and weight gain was not clear, but sufficient evidence exists for public health recommendations to limit FFC and facilitate healthier menu selection. However, the components, nutrients, and health consequences of Western and Chinese FF may be different. Note that in our models, since the prevalence of obesity was low, we combined the prevalence of overweight and obesity. WesternFFC, excluding Chinese fast food. The intake of salty snacks, for example, has increased by a factor of 2.

Children included in the analytic sample were similar fast food in china obesity those in the non-analytic sample except obesith were younger, had lower in-school physical activity levels and were less sedentary. Zhang X, van der Lans I, Dagevos H Impacts of fast food and the food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach. Like the U. Two large cross-sectional studies have examined the association in China, but provided conflicting findings.

Table 2 presents the time trends in the cuina of fast food consumers by socio-demographics, lifestyles fast food in china obesity weight status for the same cohort aged 6— Am J Prev Med e77— Bezerra I. The data utilized the version of Food Composition Table FCT to calculate macronutrient intake values for the dietary data. The prevalence of fast food consumption, obesity and hypertension is high among children in major cities in China. That nutrition transition has been the case in China.

Table 1. Methods Data of students aged 7—16 The relationship between Western fast ni consumption FFC and weight status remains mixed in the existing literature. And its popularity appears to be slowing as a younger generation begins to make more healthful choices and demand better options. This result is consistent with the shifted nutrition transition and findings that the burden of obesity and metabolic risk has started to move from the better-off to the poorer population groups in some developing countries [ 25 ].

A total of observations were missing for BMI. The trends in obesity and chronic disease in China. The Chinese government should carefully regulate fast food marketing to children and teens, as well as encourage fitness programming in schools. Table 4. Maternal factors affect child outcomes.

  • First, key outcome variables i.

  • Acknowledgments We thank Dr. Am J Clin Nutr —

  • Table 4. Some studies have reported that sodium intake was associated with elevated systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP both among adults [ 151617181920 ] and children [ 212223 ].

  • China now has the largest overweight population in the world — Public Health Nutr.

Fast food for family meals: relationships with parent and adolescent food intake, home food availability and weight status. We examined FFC patterns among children who participated in both waves in andand later looked at children of the same age cohort in both waves. Many of their CEOs have said this publicly and noted how important China is to their bottom lines. BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

Interestingly, the FFC rate decreased in the children from high-income families, but those from ni and medium-income families increased their FFC. Essentially, the single child gets an excessive amount of attention, which often fast food in china obesity to eating a lot of fast food. Abstract Background: China has seen rapid increase in obesity and hypertension prevalence and fast food consumption over the past decade. However, during —, FFC increased in rural areas, but decreased in urban areas. The main strengths of our study include longitudinal analysis and stratified analysis to examine the time trends in FFC and the association between FFC and obesity in Chinese children. PLoS One 9: e While the percentage consumed increased dramatically in the Northeast

Namespaces Article China obesity. Am J Clin Nutr — In almost all socio-demographic subgroups, as children aged, more respondents reported having consumed fast food in the past three months. During this period, FFC decreased in children who were from high-income families and those who were overweight. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 74—

American franchises such as KFC are thriving. A study in Obesity Reviews Journal compared the risk of chronic disease in China to other countries, including the U. Am J Prev Med. China's centralized government has a unique ability to make rapid policy changes where they can enforce public nutrition policy and regulate food supply. Annual per capita household income was adjusted to yuan currency values. Urban or rural residents depending on the administrative definitions of the communities in which the participants lived. Lancet 36—

Among children aged 6—10, it did not change much, but it more than tripled among ethnic minorities 5. It concluded that the association between FFC and obesify gain was not clear, but sufficient evidence exists for public health recommendations to limit FFC and facilitate healthier menu selection. Annual per capita household income was adjusted to yuan currency values. There has been a strong interest in developing effective childhood obesity prevention programs[ 6 ]. Mon 9 Jan Prevalence and characteristic of overweight and obesity among adults in China, Biomed Environ Sci.

These changes are especially pronounced in Chinese cities, where increase caloric intake has fast food in china obesity with increased automation and transport that has reduced daily physical labor for the average citizen. It concluded that the association between FFC and weight gain was not clear, but sufficient evidence exists for public health recommendations to limit FFC and facilitate healthier menu selection. Archived from the original on 7 May Though it will certainly prove a complex task, the global image of American fast food as a trendy, modern sign of wealth needs to change. Retrieved 22 February We used McNemar tests and Chi-squared tests respectively, to examine if there were any significant differences in terms of the percentage of fast food consumers over time.

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