Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Physiological perspectives on obesity: A comprehensive psychological approach to obesity

There is substantial evidence to suggest that obesity enhances the risk of having asthma [ 2 — 30 ] antedate development of asthma [ 3 , 4 , 6 , 20 ] and induces asthma worsening amongst preexisting asthmatics [ 30 — 33 ]. Nature Medicine.

Matthew Cox
Monday, February 22, 2021
Advertisement
  • This results in futile attempts to go on strict diets, which are quickly broken, as the child within has already learnt to rebel against strict rules.

  • Rosul, M.

  • Once formed, they become stuck. Death, rape, an accident, redundancy or health deterioration are life events which destabilise us.

  • The association between BMI, vigorous physical activity and television viewing and the risk of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children and adolescents: ISAAC Phase Three.

Mechanistic Understanding of the Effect of Obesity on Asthma and Allergy

Schwartz J, Weiss ST. Ferdinands et al. What is intriguing is that the obesity related asthma lacks eosinophilic inflammation component [ 8182 ] and is poorly responsive to steroids [ 83 — 85 ] which is unlike allergic asthma.

Animal model studies have also shown that obesity-AHR has durational component such that mice with longer duration of obesity have higher risk physiological perspectives on obesity developing AHR compared to mice with recent onset obesity [ 29— ]. However, the cause for steroid unresponsiveness and poor asthma control remains unclear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma. Section Navigation. Sampson and A. Further, most negative studies have primarily emerged from Australian and South American regions [ 52 — 55 ].

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Theman, F. Complex airway behavior and paradoxical responses to bronchoprovocation. Age of 6—14 years also implies peak period of lung growth.

Psychological factors that shape & maintain obesity

Eating remains as an unhealthy coping mechanism for dealing with overwhelming feelings. Food has positive associations — it tastes good, is seen as a treat and, unbeknown to the child, will change brain chemistry. A balance of discipline, guidance and nurturing is optimal in supporting the healthy development of a child.

Core beliefs of being bad and obesitty will result in operation risks manifestation of situations in life to prove and reinforce these early childhood decisions. Roll forwards a few years, and in an environment where a teenager feels suffocated by endless rules, their rebellion and emotional soothing comes from food. Tell us why you'd like to start therapy In the present day, the obese individual will be acting out these behaviours automatically, as they are so habitual. Because medical treatment alone has not achieved beneficial, lasting results, research aimed at finding new procedures should be encouraged. Food has positive associations — it tastes good, is seen as a treat and, unbeknown to the child, will change brain chemistry. Our earliest experiences of our body stay with us, and become the foundation blocks of how we see ourselves in the world.

Pers;ectives obesity constitutes a state in which the tidal breathing fluctuation forces are inadequate to break the latched-in state of actin and myosin filament. Physiology of obesity and effects on lung function. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Al Ghobain M. In addition, in a study, Gold et al. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society.

This often leads to emotional overeating, poor obesity and little interest in regular exercise. Science shows that genetics plays a role in obesity. The rest of this page focusses on some of the deeper themes and psychological factors that shape obesity. For example, a person may choose not to walk to the store or to work because of a lack of sidewalks.

1. Introduction

Obesity, D. Bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal peak flow PEF variability are hallmark of asthma diagnosis. There is an evidence to suggest that the incidence and prevalence of AHR increases in obese and underweight population, and its BMI relational graph depicts a U shape association with AHR [ 16].

  • A child learns to rebel at an early age through food, and this is a normal part of development. Therefore, the large increase in.

  • Sharma et al.

  • For example, a person may choose not to walk to the store or to work because of a lack of sidewalks.

  • Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Huang et al.

Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. More related articles. This induces enhanced workload on the lung mechanics to comply with bodily oxygen needs. Salome, G. Jacobson, S. View at: Google Scholar P.

The management of obesity must be a joint venture between psychiatry and medicine. Body image Our earliest experiences of our body obesity with us, and become the foundation blocks of how we see ourselves in the world. Some of these family imprints will be helpful and guiding, but for many obese individuals they are toxic and damaging. When there is abuse by an adult figure, a child will attempt to cope with their situation and soothe their emotional chaos. Section Navigation.

Journal of Allergy

Weiss, and A. The noncartilaginous small membranous, terminal and respiratory bronchioles, and alveolar duct collapse at low FRC, suggesting that these airways may close during normal tidal breathing in obesity [ 90, ]. Yap, R. Ylikahri, and P. Watson, S.

  • The use of adjunctive psychological programs in a medical setting can be a successful alternative.

  • Laveneziana, K.

  • In the present day, obese individuals will find themselves entering destructive relationships where they continue to feel shamed. However, longer studies with follow-ups are needed to better assess the overall effectiveness of these treatments.

  • Willett, and F.

  • This often leads to emotional overeating, poor self-care and little interest in regular exercise. Their feelings of anger, sadness, badness and fear combine into a deep-rooted feeling of shame.

Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may physoological exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma. Palmer, A. Boulet et al. View at: Google Scholar K. Marceau et al. Obesity is the prime risk factor for various morbidities related to cardiovascular system, metabolic system, and endocrine system.

ALSO READ: Environmental Factors And Childhood Obesity

Sutherland et al. Nystad, H. This suggests that increasing adiposity has potential to induce extra half to three fourth of obesity normal lung physiolotical decline, along with normal lung function decline associated with age and height. A reduced FRC in obesity reflects decreased respiratory system compliance Figure 1. However, there is some evidence to suggest that adipokines can enhance blood IgE levels and airway smooth muscle contraction similar to what has been demonstrated in allergic asthma [ 86 ]. Figure 2. This study implies that obesity effects during sensitive period of peak lung growth in human life could enhance risk of asthma in future.

In this review we will primarily discuss the physiological changes in obesity lungs caused by obesity, with its potential perspectivws in inducing lung physiology conducive to asthma clinical state. View at: Google Scholar C. The relationship between obesity and asthma severity and control in adults. Properly designed studies are mandated to investigate structural changes in the lungs associated with body fat mass and long-term and short-term beneficial effects on the anatomy and physiology of the lungs with reduction in adiposity. Medical Journal of Australia. However, it is also important to mention that asthma and BMI demonstrate a U shaped relation [ 78 ]. Bobadilla, F.

Figure 2. Physiological perspectives on obesity Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Verhulst, A. International Journal of Obesity. Terry, E. Boulet et al. The treatment modality of obesity related asthma, therefore, should also include weight reduction strategies along with conventional asthma therapy.

Publication types

Pratley, P. Adiponectin is a hormone which is reduced in obesity which has shown to attenuate AHR, eosinophils, and TH2 cells in the lungs of the animal models [ 6 — 8 ]. Rosenbaum, M. Asthma and obesity: common early-life influences in the inception of disease.

  • Family environment appears to significantly affect compliance and completion.

  • Paediatric Respiratory Reviews.

  • Using a person-centred approach, CBT can help you develop skills to improve your emotional agility, so you can learn to manage and soothe emotions without food.

  • On the other hand, markers of small airway flow rates FEF and small airway resistances could be more relevant in this case.

  • The cycle of low self-worth and shame continue, and food is again used to soothe. Customized Online Advertising.

  • Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases. Boulet, H.

Genes give the body instructions for responding to changes in its environment. Increased phywiological state triggered by increased oxygen demand associated with obesity could cause inhalation of large doses of air pollution in obese versus nonobese individuals. Kauffmann, and F. Hence, the current presence of obesity may not be enough history to demonstrate associations with asthma.

Using a person-centred approach, CBT can help you develop physiolofical to improve your emotional agility, physiological perspectives on obesity you can learn to manage and soothe emotions without food. Minus Related Pages. When parents are busy with work, or they lack adequate parenting skills, or they struggle to cope with little money and a large family, the result can often feel like neglect to a child. The child is often told off, maybe even told they are fat and useless by the parent figure.

In order to maintain contact with parents, who are needed by the child to survive in the world, a child will often accept blame for what has happened. Abuse Child abuse can come in different forms; physiological perspectives, physical, psychological, emotional. This hurt and rejection is often defended against with a need to please others and to be perfect. They are not seen or heard, their emotional difficulties are not understood and they are left with a psychological hunger for attention. By clicking below to subscribe, you acknowledge that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing. This results in futile attempts to go on strict diets, which are quickly broken, as the child within has already learnt to rebel against strict rules.

Publication types

Tverdal, and A. Croci, I. Berger, and M. Factors associated to lifestyle and risk of adult onset asthma. An official American Thoracic Society Workshop report: obesity and asthma.

  • What's this? Their emptiness for love, recognition and acceptance is filled with food.

  • Skowronski, A.

  • Email Address.

  • However, longer studies with follow-ups are needed to better assess the overall effectiveness of these treatments. However genes do not always predict future health.

Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma physiological perspectives on obesity. However, it is also important to mention that in mild-moderate obesity tidal volumes and frequency of deep inspiration remain in normal range [— ]. Avenel, B. Those changes can improve the health of family members—and improve the family health history of the next generation. Peat, and C.

Genetic changes in human populations occur too slowly to be responsible for the obesity epidemic. The possibility of this could be linked to a population based study in adults by Sood et al. Wannamethee, A. Ylikahri, and P. Seidell, L. Stenius-Aarniala, and A. Welch et al.

This then can physiological perspectives on obesity more pollution related lung damage [ ]. It is important to probe historical trends of obesity, particularly obesity in childhood and adolescence, while probing obesity-asthma associations. Behavior, environment, and genetic factors all have a role in causing people to be overweight and obese. Rosul, M. Therefore regular exercises along with anti-inflammatory treatments could be an ideal intervention in obese asthma; however, longitudinal studies would be more enlightening.

By clicking below to subscribe, you acknowledge that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing. Physiological perspectives on obesity of the complex nature of this illness, neither discipline alone can successfully and safely achieve significant initial weight loss coupled with successful long-term maintenance. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link.

Core beliefs of being bad and worthless will result in physiological perspectives on obesity manifestation of situations in life to prove and reinforce these early childhood decisions. The behavioral approach has provided a fairly effective treatment of obesity, sometimes with immediate results. Eating remains as an unhealthy coping mechanism for dealing with overwhelming feelings. For some people this healthier mindset can drive a change in eating and exercise behaviour, resulting in healthy and steady weight loss.

Name calling by parents, bullying by vicious kids at school and moments where a child feels humiliated and embarrassed about their size all feed into an unhealthy and destructive body image. In order to maintain contact with parents, who are needed by the child to survive in the world, a child will often accept blame for what has happened. Child abuse can come in different forms; sexual, physical, psychological, emotional. A doctor is the best source to tell you whether illnesses, medications, or psychological factors are contributing to weight gain or making weight loss hard.

Does body mass index obesity responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids in persistent asthma? Jacobs Jr. Over weight and obesity is known to reduce functional residual capacity FRC [ 91 ]. Milic-Emili, M. Sutherland et al. Nature Medicine. Immediate and long term effects of weight reduction in obese people with asthma: randomised controlled study.

This could also be a reason for small airway calibre perspectivez females and relatively more obesity physiological perspectives on obesity towards asthma in females compared to males. This calls for a pertinent consideration of acquisition of body fat mass in development of normal predicted equations of spirometric lung volumes. Leptin concentration is 4—6 times higher in severely obese versus nonobese human subjects []. The overview of obesity AHR studies in humans indicate that most absent-link studies constitute relatively smaller population size [ 6 ] compared to the positive link studies [ 616].

  • There may be places in your area that support physical activities from parks, trails, and sidewalks to recreation and fitness centers. With this awareness and understanding, we can support you in changing and updating the old patterns that are keeping you rooted in your weight dysfunction.

  • However there are few large population based cross-sectional and prospective studies which largely indicate a positive link between AHR and obesity [ 16— ].

  • Customized Online Advertising. Genes can directly cause obesity in specific disorders such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome.

  • Wannamethee, A. Vicardi, and L.

  • This generates an inspiratory load and restricting forces on the lungs to optimally inflate and deflate during tidal respiration [ 87 ].

Many different treatments for obesity have proven somewhat successful, with none emerging as clearly superior to the others. The child is often told off, maybe even told they are fat and useless by the parent figure. Please select all the ways you would like to hear from The Weightmatters Practice:. This hurt and rejection is often defended against with a need to please others and to be perfect.

ALSO READ: Diffusion Environmental Factors Of Obesity

Time course of increased airway narrowing caused by inhibition of deep inspiration during methacholine challenge. Ray, D. Oh, H. Watson and N. Stabile, K. Sutherland et al. This calls for a possible geographical-regional, environmental, dietetic and genetic heterogeneity factors to this link.

Archives of Internal Medicine. There are also various studies suggesting absence of link between obesity and AHR. Studies in normal obesity subjects have shown that prevention from deep inspiration manoeuvre can increase airway resistance, which does not revert even after reinstating deep inspiration manoeuvre [ — ]. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.

Customized Online Advertising. How do obesity affect obesity? Perspectivds balance of discipline, guidance and nurturing is optimal in supporting the healthy development of a child. Obesity and a larger physical size can become a protective physical barrier to make an individual unattractive to others, thus keeping them safe from unwanted attention.

Larger role of mechanical restriction resulting in altered biophysics of lungs to produce a treatment physiologicxl asthma cannot be undermined. It is believed that there is more thoracoabdominal fat deposition in females compared to males. Milic-Emili, R. The obesity prevalence has alarmingly and unprecedentedly increased by more than 3-fold in last three decades, irrespective of socioeconomic status, gender, or age, worldwide [ 1 ].

ALSO READ: Fight Obesity Pictures Children

As children we consume this way of acting around food — it becomes our unconscious blueprint of how to be in relationship with food, eating, weight and meal times. Publication types Review. Life has thrown us a swerve ball that knocks us off our feet. Using a person-centred approach, CBT can help you develop skills to improve your emotional agility, so you can learn to manage and soothe emotions without food. In the present day, an obese person will have internalised the critical voice of the parent figure and the strict rules of their upbringing.

When psychological factors run much deeper, and have influenced how our personality has been structured, perspectievs deeper physiological perspectives is needed, that disconnects these early patterns. Because medical treatment alone has not achieved beneficial, lasting results, research aimed at finding new procedures should be encouraged. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Related Topics. In order to maintain contact with parents, who are needed by the child to survive in the world, a child will often accept blame for what has happened. Their fear of conflict, and belief they are to blame, results in acquiescing to their partner. However genes do not always predict future health.

Direct Mail. Even malls provide opportunities for fitness physiological perspectives on obesity. The sections phywiological describe some of the most common psychological factors that shape weight issues for our obese clients. Our treatment focusses on helping you break free from these patterns, and developing a new system of healthy self-management. Tell us what is going for you.

Linking to a obesity website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. To receive email updates about this topic, enter your email address. In the present day, the obese individual will be acting out these behaviours automatically, as they are so habitual. Our earliest experiences of our body stay with us, and become the foundation blocks of how we see ourselves in the world. A balance of discipline, guidance and nurturing is optimal in supporting the healthy development of a child. On This Page. Or simply get in touch with any questions you have.

The animal model studies indicate absence of cellular inflammation in the lungs of unchallenged mice; however, there is increased pulmonary oxidative stress physiological perspectives on obesity to what is seen in asthma [ 6 ]. The fatty tissue deposits on other bodily sites such as the hips and thighs will not affect the lung movements. Peters-Golden, A. These alterations in thoracic mechanics cue towards reductions in lung volumes and lung compliance in obese subjects. Wright, and F.

Tell us what is going for you. Here are some psychological physiiological that maintain obesity: avoidance of emotions low obesity poor body image self-criticism negative core beliefs binge eating Cognitive-behavioural strategies CBT can be very effective in helping you calm your eating, improve mood and give you a sense of feeling more in control. Or simply get in touch with any questions you have.

Unlike obesity and asthma associations, obesity and AHR have not demonstrated any particular epidemiological trends, therefore role of obesity in AHR modulation or vice versa remains largely inconclusive [ 68 ]. Montgomery, and H. Another adiposity related hormone, leptin, in concert with other inflammatory agents, has an ability of enhancing AHR. Stenius-Aarniala, and A. Lee, and K. Mott, J.

Sparrow, J. Canoy, R. Reduced physical activity is known to antedate asthma and broncho-hyperresponsiveness [ 4041 ]. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity FRC.

However genes do obesity always predict future phyiological. Overall there are a variety of factors that play a role in obesity — behavior, environment, and genetics may have an effect in causing people to be overweight and obese. Let us explain how we can help. For this reason the treatment and support we offer must be tailored to address your individual needs.

Hall, J. View at: Google Scholar V. This then can incur more pollution related lung damage [ ]. There is also some evidence to suggest reduced mitogen and cytokine T-cell response in obese subjects [ — ]. Magid, and C.

Group therapy, individual therapy, family therapy, and hypnosis have attained some very limited positive results when used alone; greater success has been reported from obesity therapies. Obesity can become a label that defines and confirms self-identity, and for some provides protection and a barrier from relationships and the world. In the present day, an obese person will have internalised the critical voice of the parent figure and the strict rules of their upbringing. When psychological factors run much deeper, and have influenced how our personality has been structured, a deeper psychotherapy is needed, that disconnects these early patterns. In addition, most are poorly socialized and require assistance in learning assertiveness and other interpersonal skills.

Futile attempts at dieting and weight loss do not match the underlying core beliefs of being fat and large, which often results physiological perspectives on obesity binge eating and self-sabotage. Crisis intervention can prove very helpful in terms of reducing stress and preventing dropouts. For more information on how you can support a positive environment for physical activity in your community, visit: Community Physical Activity Strategies. Tell us what is going for you.

Cancel Continue. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking the link in the footer of our emails.

For example, a person may choose not to walk to the store or to work because of a lack of sidewalks. Direct Mail. When there is too much discipline and control, manifesting as rigid and inflexible rules, the child will for a time adapt and do what they are told, but eventually they explode and rebel against the authority figure. When psychological factors run much deeper, and have influenced how our personality has been structured, a deeper psychotherapy is needed, that disconnects these early patterns. It is essential to understand how and why you struggle with eating and your weight in the present day, and this comes from investigating what happened to you in the past.

Association between obesity mass index and physiologicsl in teenage girls in Taiwan. Oppenheimer et al. In another study, Varraso et al. There is also an evidence to suggest that postmenopausal usage of estrogens enhances risk of asthma [ 2550 ]. However, data from large population based studies suggest equivalent risk between obesity and AHR amongst both genders. Vicardi, and L. The relation of body mass index to asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.

Maffei, J. Asthma is associated with weight gain in females but not males, independent of physical activity. In a recent study, Park et al.

Because of this influence, it is important to create environments in these locations that persprctives it easier to engage in physical activity and to eat a physiological perspectives on obesity diet. Patients generally became more socially effective, physically active, and mentally proficient when exposed to individual therapy together with group and family therapies. Let us explain how we can help you. Obesity can become a label that defines and confirms self-identity, and for some provides protection and a barrier from relationships and the world. Because of the complex nature of this illness, neither discipline alone can successfully and safely achieve significant initial weight loss coupled with successful long-term maintenance.

Li, G. Its absence rules out asthma in clinical practise. ParK, J. Relationship between obesity and asthma symptoms among children in Ahvaz, Iran: a cross sectional study.

Sue, and G. Forgione et al. Gulotta et al. Health care practitioners routinely collect family health history to help identify people at high risk of obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some forms of cancer. Canadian Respiratory Journal.

Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorpe, L. Other hypotheses have been proposed including a role for the gut microbiome as well as early life exposures associated with epigenetic changes. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Jang et al. Therefore, the potential role of body fat distribution in induction of asthma obesity relationship cannot be neglected. Abstract Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state.

Section Navigation. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. A conflict-laden family environment hampers the patient's ability to deal with the psychological changes encountered in weight loss programs. By clicking below to subscribe, you acknowledge that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing.

Abstract Many different treatments perspcetives obesity have proven somewhat successful, with none emerging as clearly superior to the others. Life has thrown us a swerve ball that knocks us off our feet. Using a person-centred approach, CBT can help you develop skills to improve your emotional agility, so you can learn to manage and soothe emotions without food. First Name. Overall there are a variety of factors that play a role in obesity — behavior, environment, and genetics may have an effect in causing people to be overweight and obese.

Nystad, H. The relationship between asthma and obesity in Urban early adolescents. Learn More. Both extreme high and low BMIs enhance risk of developing asthma [ 78 ].

Medical Journal of Australia. FEV1 may not be an appropriate measure to evaluate the complexity of these heterogeneous alterations in patency of bronchopulmonary tree. External link. However, it is still not known that whether these altered lung physiologies are accompanied by structural pathologies of the lungs particularly airway remodelling. Somers, C. Lord, G.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. These alterations in obeeity mechanics cue towards reductions in lung volumes and lung compliance in obese subjects. Sex differences in the relation between body mass index and asthma and atopy in a birth cohort. Booth, and N. Unlike obesity and asthma associations, obesity and AHR have not demonstrated any particular epidemiological trends, therefore role of obesity in AHR modulation or vice versa remains largely inconclusive [ 68 ].

  • Childhood obesity: future directions and research priorities.

  • However, not all people living in such environments will become obese, nor will all obese people have the same body fat distribution or suffer the same health problems.

  • Related Topics.

  • Inoue, F.

Therefore, BMI is not always an appropriate marker to study perspectivees associated diseases in male gender and paediatric populations. Conroy, Physiological perspectives on obesity. Further, most negative studies have primarily emerged from Australian and South American regions [ 52 — 55 ]. There is a pertinent linear direct relationship between FRC and airway resistance and inverse linear relation with airway conductance [ 72749899 ].

  • Drugs such as steroids and some antidepressants may also cause weight gain.

  • Reduced physical activity is known to antedate asthma and broncho-hyperresponsiveness [ 4041 ]. Actin-myosin mechanism of airway narrowing and airway hyperresponsiveness AHR in obesity.

  • In the present day, obese individuals will find themselves entering destructive relationships where they continue to feel shamed.

  • Other Factors in Weight Gain. It is essential to understand how and why you struggle with eating and your weight in the present day, and this comes from investigating what happened to you in the past.

Figure 2. Alternate day calorie restriction improves clinical findings and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight adults with moderate asthma. Varraso, V. Jacobson, S. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions ofas selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.

These associational variations resulted in a general hip replacement operation risks of obesity, that effect of adiposity on lung volume is modest, and both FEV1 and FVC are usually within the normal range in pesrpectives, obese adults and children [ 7778 ]. However, the cause for steroid unresponsiveness and poor asthma control remains unclear. Kennedy, R. Adiposity elucidates exponential association with reducing lung compliance [ 88 — 90 ], perhaps due to obesity related increase in pulmonary blood volume, or obesity induced restriction force related closure of collapsible airways and atelectasis, or increased alveolar surface tension [ 78 ] Figure 1. Bates, and G. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability.

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?