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Pubmed health childhood obesity: Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

Abstract Childhood obesity has emerged as an important public health problem in the United States and other countries in the world.

Matthew Cox
Sunday, February 14, 2021
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  • One of the abundant challenges for the field is the translation and implementation of effective interventions to the real-world service delivery systems that can reach those most in need.

  • Additional negative health pbmed include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, asthma, hypertension, high total, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood, sleep apnea, early puberty, orthopedic problems, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis 4647 Figure 4. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake.

  • Sleep patterns and obesity in childhood.

  • Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Introduction

Russell-Mayhew S. Basal metabolic rate, or metabolism, is the body's expenditure cjildhood energy for normal resting functions. Open in a separate childhood obesity. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. They can promote decision making and self-esteem for healthy eating behavior.

  • Family factors Family factors have also been associated with the increase of cases of obesity.

  • Indian J Endocrinol Metab. Dietary restraint is associated with obesity cross-sectional data; [ 40 ] and predictive of future weight gain in youth [ 3541 ].

  • Keywords: Childhood obesity, consequences, epidemiology, lifestyle, non-communicable disease, overweight.

  • Psychological and behavioral risk factors for obesity onset in adolescent girls: a prospective study.

  • The emergence of social ecological models for understanding obesity is useful for considering the range of influences that contribute to obesity [ 88 ].

Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Endocrine Society.

  • Unsurprisingly, the specific intervention targets and behavior change strategies align with the context and approach St.

  • The article also discusses potential strategies to overcome those barriers. Childhood obesity also leads to health risks in adulthood.

  • Additionally, some results are based on self-report of diagnoses rather than chart reviews or physician diagnosis. Sugary drinks are often thought of as being limited to soda, but juice and other sweetened beverages fall into this category.

  • Naturally, the risk is higher for the children when both parents present with obesity.

  • Obesity management such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet are recommended for OSA treatment, as well as surgical procedures, if appropriate. Preventing weight gain and obesity: Indirect effects of a family-based intervention in early childhood.

  • Pediatr Obes : e Family-centered positive behavior support interventions in early childhood to prevent obesity.

Prevalence of hypertension in schoolchildren based on repeated measurements and association with overweight. This relationship can be attributed to multi-level factors including health behaviors, parenting styles, and family functioning. Prevalence of binge and loss of control eating among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity: An exploratory meta-analysis. Abstract Childhood obesity has a strong social gradient. Interventions in rural communities and multiple settings benefited from engaging parents and obtaining support from organization members and leadership Chuang et alGanter et al J Am Diet Assoc.

Consuming large portions, in addition to frequent obesity heqlth highly caloric foods, contribute to an excessive caloric intake. Studies emerging from different parts of India within last decade are also indicative of similar trend. The prevalence of obesity was Barriers to physical activity in a population-based sample of children and adolescent in Isfahn, Iran. American Academy of Pediatrics. Eating-disordered behaviors, body fat, and psychopathology in overweight and normal-weight children. Hypothalamic alterations in obesity.

INTRODUCTION

The unhappy obese child. Television viewing and overweight and obesity amongst children. The role of neuropeptide Y and oubmed YY in the development of obesity via gut-brain axis. Gender differences may reflect the Westernized cultural ideals of beauty in that thinness is the only culturally defined ideal for females, while males are encouraged to be both lean and muscular. Their lack of physical activity may be because of lack of facilities like safe side walks, bike paths, and safe parks.

Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. Dietary factors have been studied extensively for its possible contributions to the rising rates of obesity. They also face numerous other hardships including negative stereotypes, discrimination, and social marginalization. The Journal of School Nursing. Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient.

  • CORD 1. Implementation strategies are defined as the methods or techniques used to enhance the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of a clinical program or practice Proctor et al

  • Larkin J, Rice C. A review of family and social determinants of children's eating patterns and diet quality.

  • Primary care is viewed as an ideal, real world environment for weight management interventions because of accessibility and frequency of visits i.

  • George et al in press. The ecological model, as described by Davison et al.

  • Environmental factors While extensive television viewing and the use of other electronic media has contributed to the sedentary lifestyles, other environmental factors have reduced the opportunities for physical activity.

  • A systematic review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 69 :

While traditional methods to enhance the health and well-being of young people have utilized a problem-focused paradigm, a focus childhooc QOL obesity resilience provides opportunity to view childhood obesity and overweight through a lens of positive mental health and development. Journal of Clinical Psychology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. A controlled evaluation of web-based training for teachers and public health practitioners on the prevention of eating disorders.

Consequences of childhood obesity Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's pumed health, social, and emotional well-being, and self pubmed health childhood obesity. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. Community support is invaluable in implementing interventions and organizing social events like healthy food festivals, harvest festivals, imparting healthy messages, and educating and encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle. Potential Risk Factors of Childhood Obesity. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. It is often difficult for overweight children to participate in physical activities as they tend to be slower than their peers and contend with shortness of breath. Educational Psychology in Practice.

Introduction

Psychology in The Schools. Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels in the United States. Most research has not examined these psychosocial factors in one study, obesitg this paper aims to look at these factors together. We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.

Interactive multimedia like CD ROM can promote healthy nutrition in children with the help of obseity educational games. The ecological model, as described by Davison et al. According to a recent review about school-based interventions for obesity prevention, 17 out of 25 intervention studies were effective in reducing the body mass index. Dietary Restraint Restraint theory [ 38 ] suggests that the constant restriction of food intake will eventually break down and result in disinhibited eating, like binge eating and emotional eating. They also face numerous other hardships including negative stereotypes, discrimination, and social marginalization. While a complete picture of all the risk factors associated with obesity remains elusive, the combination of diet, exercise, physiological factors, and psychological factors is important in the control and prevention of childhood obesity; thus, all researchers agree that prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current problem.

They also found moderately strong evidence when delivering combined interventions in school-based settings alone, in schools with home or community component, or in community with a school component. Other reasons parents gave for driving their children to school included no safe walking route, fear of child predators, and out of convenience for the child. This does not discount the risks of obesity on asthma and its unique effects on asthma symptoms. Hypertension Hypertension, like obesity, has been increasing among youth and is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk throughout the lifetime May et al

MeSH terms

Trends in obesity and severe obesity prevalence in us youth and adults by obwsity and age, to The most common obesity behaviors are high consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and low-nutrient, high saturated fat foods, low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors, and shortened sleep duration e. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. Evaluation of children with obesity is aimed at determining the cause of weight gain and assessing for comorbidities resulting from excess weight.

RCTs demonstrated significant reductions in child weight Karacabeyli et al Nature reviews. Patrick H, Nicklas T. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD NAFLD is the leading cause of liver disease, leading to a shorter life expectancy due to associated comorbidities; one of which, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, is projected to be the leading indication for pediatric liver transplant by Charlton et al This relationship can be attributed to multi-level factors including health behaviors, parenting styles, and family functioning. Childhood obesity: A call to action. Primary care is viewed as an ideal, real world environment for weight management interventions because of accessibility and frequency of visits i. A developmental cascade perspective of pediatric obesity: A systematic review of preventive interventions from infancy through late adolescence. Implementation Science 12 :

Publication types

Gupta RK. In a study, Cutler et al found that an increase in consumption of food tends to be related to technology innovation in food production and transportation. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. Journal of Pediatric Psychology.

In a prospective study, Stout et al found that fetal exposure to stress, as evidenced by elevated maternal cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone, was related to patterns of increasing BMI over the first 24 months of life. Limits were set to include studies on children and adolescents that were published in peer-reviewed journals from to In addition, BMI fails to distinguish between fat and fat-free mass muscle and bone and may exaggerate obesity in large muscular children. Relatedly, for prevention in particular, there is some correspondence between the sample being targeted and the context, such that community and school-based interventions are far more likely to be universal sample does not consider weight status or selective target sample is overweight or specifically targeted due to being at-risk for obesity; e. The majority were implemented in the school setting at a community level; the others were in health services or general population setting and targeting individuals or the system. Publication types Review. Socio-emotional consequences In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health.

Childhood obesity has a strong social gradient. Echoing Karacabeyli et alwe also recommend pubked process evaluation and outcome data in order to understand the complex causal chain and to help bolster inferences in regard to the effectiveness and implementation of the intervention using hybrid designs. Adiposity rebound AR in early childhood is a risk factor for obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Tailoring strategies to local communities and deepening engagement holds promise in enhancing sustainability and scalability of community-based interventions. A study examining children aged 9—14 from —, found that consumption of sugary beverages increased BMI by small amounts over the years. Genetics are one of the biggest factors examined as a cause of obesity.

MeSH terms

Prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents agedfor selected years through [ 6 ]. Hypothalamic alterations in obesity. Each participant completed a questionnaire on body images, eating behaviors, and moods.

US Food and Drug Administration. Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study. Int Nurs Rev. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children has shown dramatic increases over the past 25 years [ 3 ]. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Prevention of childhood obesity: a review of the current guidelines childhooc supporting evidence. Figure 1. The first is to educate parents on proper nutritional requirements for their children and the second is to implement the learned information. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Their lack of physical activity may be because of lack of facilities like safe side walks, bike paths, and safe parks. Certain behaviors have been linked to childhood obesity and overweight; these are a lack of physical activity and unhealthy eating patterns eating more food away from home, drinking more sugar-sweetened drinks, and snacking more frequentlyresulting in excess energy intake. Keywords: Calorie imbalance, childhood obesity, interventions, physical activity, policy changing.

1.0. INTRODUCTION

Development of eating behaviours among children and adolescents. This scoping review aims to synthesize the evidence on the impact on inequalities of non-targeted interventions to reduce the prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in high-income countries. Developmental cascade model of pediatric obesity Note.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Psychological Factors 5. However, diet control is only one component of the control and prevention pubmed health childhood obesity childhood obesity, while adequate exercise is another. Int Q Community Health Educ. These lower time costs have led to increased food consumption and, ultimately, increased weights. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Lumeng and Saltiel reported that obesity in children affects multiple organ systems and predisposes them to diseases.

  • Each C includes factors that contribute to child obesity that occur and interact simultaneously throughout child development. George SM, et al.

  • Prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, by sex and age: the United States, The implementation of healthy eating practices and adequate exercise regimes are essential in the prevention and control of childhood obesity.

  • George SM, et al.

  • Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

For this comprehensive review, the literature was scanned from to using PubMed using the following search terms: childhood obesity, pediatric obesity, childhood overweight, bariatric surgery, and adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. The role of weight and shape childhooc. Sustainability of these interventions is a key factor, so that children can adopt these healthy behaviors as a lifelong practice and have a healthy life. Additional negative health consequences include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, asthma, hypertension, high total, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood, sleep apnea, early puberty, orthopedic problems, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis 4647 Figure 4. A less well-known public health issue that elevates risk for obesity is the evidence of increased frequencies of unhealthy dieting behaviours among young people. Please review our privacy policy.

Int J Obes. Cornette RE. The impact obesity on psychological well-being. Published online Dec 1. Moreover, if parents enforce pubmed health childhood obesity healthier lifestyle at home, many obesity problems could be avoided. Family factors Family factors have also been associated with the increase of cases of obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion, childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion.

A recent review by Wardle and Cooke pubmec 13 ] included 53 studies examining the relationship between obesity and psychosocial factors distinguishing clinical and community samples. Overeating among adolescents: Prevalence and associations with weight-related characteristics and psychological health. Making the available education materials easier to understand from just tables and numbers to more relatable aspects such as colors or figures, parents were able to visualize the changes they need to make whether it is with regard to portion sizes or even seeing how much childhood obesity is present in their family. Childhood obesity: An overview.

  • Causes of Childhood Obesity It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences.

  • Richardson GE.

  • There is limited information on the efficacy and safety of medications for weight loss in children.

  • Interventions including both parents and children have shown more positive short and long-term effects healtth child weight when compared to parent-only interventions and controls in some studies Yackobovitch-Gavan et alwhereas others have found comparable effects for parent-only and child-involved family-based approaches Boutelle et al See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

Evaluation of children with obesity is aimed at obesitt obesity cause of weight gain and assessing for comorbidities resulting from excess weight. In the clinical environment, techniques such as BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness have been used extensively. Diabetes Care 39 : Waist circumference seems to be more accurate for children because it targets central obesity, which is a risk factor for type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. Obesity management such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet are recommended for OSA treatment, as well as surgical procedures, if appropriate.

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In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. Some of these challenges are:. This review obesity highlights the health implications including physiological and psychological factors comorbidities, as well as the epidemiology, risk factors, prevention, and control of childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States. Other reasons parents gave for driving their children to school included no safe walking route, fear of child predators, and out of convenience for the child. Dublin: Department of Health and Children;

Childhood childhoodd is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21 st century. The impact obesity on psychological male. Warschburger P. Main concepts in this model include psychological factors, mediating variables, and wellness factors. Psychological and behavioral risk factors for obesity onset in adolescent girls: a prospective study. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: The three cities heart study.

1. Introduction

Eating disorder symptoms Traits associated with eating disorders appear to be common in adolescent obese populations, particularly for girls. There is limited pubmed health childhood obesity on the efficacy and safety of medications for weight loss in children. A review shows that children with obesity-related hypertension are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality Wuhl Though many studies have shown weight gain with regular consumption of fast food, it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between fast food and obesity. Moreover, if parents enforce a healthier lifestyle at home, many obesity problems could be avoided.

Thus, there is a linear relationship between body dissatisfaction and increasing BMI for girls; while for boys a U-shaped chiildhood suggests that boys with Childhood obesity at the low and high extremes experience high levels of body dissatisfaction. A complementary search was executed to update the review to cover the period from February to January Body satisfaction and body weight: Gender differences and sociodemographic determinants. Gov't, P. These limits narrowed the search to

  • Ghosh A.

  • Dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and psychological distress: a prospective analysis.

  • Inthe National Institutes of Health launched the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes ECHO program to investigate influences of environmental exposures on child health and development. Factors associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among children seeking treatment for obesity: A social-ecological approach.

In addition, family mealtimes can influence the type of food consumed and the amount thereof. Research has consistently found that body satisfaction is higher in males than females at all ages. This chapter reviews the state-of-the-science for understanding the etiology of childhood obesity, the preventive interventions and treatment options for overweight and obesity, and the medical complications and co-occurring psychological conditions that result from excess adiposity, such as hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and depression. Research which indicates the number of hours children spend watching TV correlates with their consumption of the most advertised goods, including sweetened cereals, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks. Included studies had to be experimental controlled studies and had duration over 1 school year, had family involvement, combined PA and dietary behaviors and were implemented in school setting. Tremendous challenges remain in connecting the dots between etiology, development, and intervention targets, as well as when and where to intervene.

Specific interventions can be delivered in community, school, home, and healthcare settings depending on the type of strategy and risk level of the targeted population. Pediatrics : e The pro-inflammatory disease nature of obesity and contributing health behaviors affects normal physiology and metabolism, and can cause many associated diseases Gonzalez-Muniesa et al Interventions delivered in community settings can be effective, but the impact could be diminished through the lower likelihood of intervention completion due to living in lower socioeconomic circumstances and other obstacles Fagg et al It has been hypothesized that obese individuals have lower basal metabolic rates. Gupta RK. Weight-related stigma, defined as subtly or overtly having discriminatory actions against individuals with obesity, toward children with obesity can impair quality of life, and contributes to unhealthy behaviors that can worsen obesity such as social isolation, decreased physical activity, and avoidance of health care services Pont et al

Overweight children report qualitatively distinct asthma symptoms: analysis of validated symptom measures. Bold text indicates strongest support based on our review of the literature. Portion sizes have increased drastically in the past decade. It is emerging convincingly that the genesis of Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease begins in childhood, with childhood obesity serving as an important factor. Many families, especially those with two parents working outside the home, opt for these places as they are often favored by their children and are both convenient and inexpensive.

Restraint theory [ 38 ] suggests that the constant restriction of food intake will eventually break down and result in disinhibited eating, like binge eating and emotional eating. Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors i. Health Education. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, Obesity stigma: important considerations for public health.

Researchers have taken interest in the childhood obesity epidemic and the impact of this condition across health domains. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among us adolescents, — Socio-emotional consequences In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health. Decaluwxe V, Braet C. The social consequences of obesity may contribute to continuing difficulty in weight management. Body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, depression, and weight status in adolescents.

Publication types

In: Bhalwar RJ, editor. Many families, especially those with two parents working outside the home, opt for these places as they are often favored by their children and are both convenient and inexpensive. Family-Based Interventions The home environment e.

Pubmed health childhood obesity of depression and anxiety disorders with weight change in healtn prospective community-based study of children followed up into adulthood. Peer victimization and pediatric obesity: a review of the literature. Heritability of obesity from parents also influences obesity in children. The visible nature of obesity i. Perusse L, Bouchard C. Eating disorder symptoms Traits associated with eating disorders appear to be common in adolescent obese populations, particularly for girls. Neuropeptide receptors as potential pharmacological targets for obesity.

Address for correspondence: Dr. Research which indicates the number of hours children spend watching Pubmed health childhood obesity correlates with their consumption of the most advertised goods, including sweetened cereals, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks. Others can develop Anorexia Nervosa AN as they attempt to restrict their diet and overshoot their goal of "being healthy. Publication types Review.

Associations between obesogenic risk factors and depression among adolescents: a systematic review. Obesity prevention and obesogenic behavior interventions in child care: A systematic review. Implementation strategies: recommendations for specifying and reporting. Parental stress increases body mass index trajectory in pre-adolescents.

Family factors have also been associated with the increase of cases of obesity. On the other hand, the ability to delay gratification at age 4 is associated with lower BMI 30 years later Schlam et al Open in a separate window. A study by Hoffman et al showed that an integrated clinic-community model is feasible and improves physical activity and quality of life when compared to multidisciplinary treatment only in clinical care settings.

Researchers have taken interest in the childhood obesity epidemic and the impact of this condition across health domains. Publication types Research Support, N. J Sch Health. Mental health and psychosocial characteristics in adolescent obesity: A population-based case-control study.

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Some studies find that obese obesity have lower self-esteem [ 29 ] while cchildhood do not [ 2130 ]. Health Effects of Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is known to have a significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Schwarz SM. Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Parental feeding style is also significant. Obesity and Lipotoxicity.

Cultural adaptations have been suggested to increase the intervention's acceptance in specific or vulnerable population groups. Toward a developmental conceptualization of contributors to overweight and obesity in childhood: The Six-Cs model. Intervening from a biopsychosocial model involves cognitive behavioral and behavioral therapy to reframe thoughts and replace unhealthy eating behaviors with new habits. The longitudinal effects of postnatal maternal depressive symptoms predicted obesity risk in preschool-age children, and unhealthier lifestyle behaviors, such as high TV viewing time and low levels of physical activity Benton et al

A developmental cascade perspective of pediatric obesity: A systematic review of preventive interventions from infancy through late adolescence. In obesitj, Karacabeyli et al described the benefits of a quasi-experimental design which lends itself to selecting at-risk communities that could greatly benefit from intervention efforts. Interventions to prevent and manage overweight or obesity in preschool children: A systematic review.

  • Family-Based Interventions The home environment e.

  • J Am Diet Assoc. Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

  • However, differences in basal metabolic rates are not likely to be responsible for the rising rates of obesity.

  • The highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity have been observed in developed countries; however, its prevalence is increasing in developing countries as well. Body mass index in screening for adiposity in children and adolescents: Systematic evaluation using receiver operating characteristic curves.

S D Med. Figure 3. Most research has not examined these psychosocial factors in one study, and this paper aims to look at these factors together. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: The three cities heart study.

Each C includes factors that contribute to child obesity that occur and interact simultaneously throughout child bmi for healthy male. Socio-cultural factors have also been found to influence the development of obesity. This is an area in need of attention as interventions are taken to scale. Current diabetes reports 14 : While increasing fruit, vegetable and water consumption are important, the health behavior modifications are not sufficient for significant long-term obesity management.

Future Child. Bariatric surgery has been found to be effective in decreasing excess weight and improving comorbidities in adolescents with severe obesity. Media effects have been found for adolescent aggression and smoking and formation of unrealistic body ideals. This so-called research-practice gap is pronounced in obesity prevention and management given the preponderance of untested, usual care approaches currently in use; the persistence of debunked myths about causes and effective intervention approaches e. Designing effective and sustainable multifaceted interventions for obesity prevention and healthy communities. Child mental health Poor self-regulation and related constructs such as reactivity and impulsivity, are prospective obesogenic risk factors Bergmeier et alSmith et al d. Aligned with previous research, Bleich et al found that school-based interventions that used a multi-component approach of both physical activity and nutrition with some intervention with families in the home had the largest effects.

How being overweight causes cancer? Childhood obesity and overweight prevalence trends in England: Evidence for growing socioeconomic disparities. Gupta RK. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents,

However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. The bidirectional relationship of obesity and eating disorders, including eating disorder psychopathology, should be properly evaluated during treatment planning. Current conceptualisation of body image dissatisfaction: Have we got it wrong? Designing effective and sustainable multifaceted interventions for obesity prevention and healthy communities. Government and social policies could also potentially promote healthy behavior. This does not discount the risks of obesity on asthma and its unique effects on asthma symptoms.

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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during — a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study An exemplar study, Natale et al conducted an early childhood multi-level obesity intervention, which included menu modifications at the child care center, a nutrition and physical activity educational curriculum for preschoolers, and a healthy meal preparation and role modeling curriculum for parents. Large community trials in particular often suffer high attrition rates because of mobile populations who move to different residences, which can impact the ability to track and communicate with participants. Further, parent-only interventions have been shown to be more cost-effective Janicke et al b. At two-years follow-up, the researchers observed significantly less increase in BMI percentile among the intervention group versus controls. Interestingly, less rigorous study designs e.

  • This energy imbalance can cause weight gain, and consequently obesity.

  • Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Public policy to prevent childhood obesity, and the role of pediatric endocrinologists.

  • Mental health and psychosocial characteristics in adolescent obesity: A population-based case-control study. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate.

  • Learn More.

While BMI seems appropriate for differentiating adults, it may not be as useful in children because of their changing body shape as they progress through normal growth. Kapil U, Bhadoria AS. Obesity Reviews. International Studies in The Sociology of Education.

J Pediatr. Resilience in the face of potential trauma: clinical practices and illustrations. These potential consequences are further examined in the following sections. Another effective prevention measure against childhood obesity is the awareness of parents on the meal and snack portion sizes. Given that the psychosocial health of obese and overweight children and youth has been studied from a largely psychopathological perspective, measures often report on specific issues i. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21 st century.

Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. Orlistat is the only FDA-approved medication for treating obesity for pediatric patients ages 12 years and older. To summarize, there is promise in community-based interventions that involve either the health clinic and community partnerships or community and school partnerships. For this reason, our review begins with interventions aimed at prevention and moves to management and treatment options for obesity and its psychological and medical comorbidities. One of the few studies using a longitudinal design did not replicate the relationship between high parental stress and lower levels of youth physical activity, but the relationship held for high levels of parental stress and increased fast food consumption Baskind et al

Implementation Science 12 : Children of mothers with severe ohesity were more likely to be obese compared to children of mothers with fewer symptoms Marshall et al healthy male Latinx are particularly well-suited to participate in family-based interventions given their cultural emphasis on familial values; however, a recent meta-analysis noted diminishing intervention effects with a higher proportion of Hispanic children Ling et alwhich was attributed to a lack of culturally competent interventions to address language barriers and dietary preferences. In the United States US from —, All rights reserved.

Lack of physical activity also plays an important role in obesity. Ghosh A. Psychol Sch. The inflammatory response to obesity triggers pathogens, systematic increases in circulatory inflammatory cytokines, and acute-phase reactants eg, C-reactive proteinswhich inflames the tissues.

These limits narrowed the search to Abstract The overweight and obesity epidemic among children and adolescents in the United States continues to worsen, with notable racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. Department of Health and Children. Abstract Childhood obesity has become a global pandemic in developed countries, leading to a host of medical conditions that contribute to increased morbidity and premature death. Other reasons parents gave for driving their children to school included no safe walking route, fear of child predators, and out of convenience for the child.

Natl Med J India. Methods: Studies published between and January were retrieved from scientific cihldhood databases and grey literature. There are signs that progress is being made in stemming the tide of childhood obesity and evidence-based interventions are available across development and for various contexts and systems that affected and at-risk children routinely encounter. In addition to incorporating other ethnic minorities and culturally appropriate interventions, Ash et al suggested that preventive family-based interventions should account for non-traditional families and their different needs and family dynamics.

The result of this change has been childhood obesity significant reduction in the time costs for food production. The complications caused due to childhood obesity are severe and could continue to affect the health of a child even in adulthood. Public Health Agency of Canada. It is our recommendation that parents and community teachers and doctors should be involved in identifying children at risk based on their BMI and participate in implementing practices such as good diet control through the reduction of sugary drinks, fatty foods, and also encouraging safe exercise programs to prevent and control childhood obesity in the society.

Sugary drinks are often thought of as being limited to soda, but juice and other sweetened beverages fall into this category. Abstract Obesity is a complex condition that interweaves biological, developmental, environmental, pubmed health childhood obesity, and genetic factors; it is a significant public health problem. Am J Matern Child Nurs. Asthma Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among children and adolescents: Facing children with suspected or confirmed COVID, health professionals should 1 diagnose excess weight; 2 advise on health care in times of isolation; 3 screen for comorbidities, ensuring that treatment is not interrupted; 4 measure levels of immunonutrients; 5 guide the family in understanding the specifics of the situation; and 6 refer to units qualified to care for obese children and adolescents when necessary.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. In terms of mental health and wellness, this type of shift in paradigm could benefit all children and youth potentially for generations to come. Individual factors are often the focus in childhood obesity literature, so refocusing on healthy relationships e.

Though many studies have shown weight gain with regular consumption of fast food, it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between fast food and obesity. Focusing on these causes may, over time, decrease childhood obesity and lead to a healthier society as a whole. Freemark MS, pp. It is emerging convincingly that the genesis of Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease begins in childhood, with childhood obesity serving as an important factor. A meta-analysis on the relationship between maternal stress and child body mass index. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age.

Eating-disordered behaviors, body fat, and psychopathology in overweight and normal-weight children. A social justice agenda: ready, or not? Open in a separate window. The new public health.

Introduction pubmed health childhood obesity the special issue: Childhood obesity. One area that has yet to receive meaningful examination is how mental health may influence or be influenced by efforts at preventing obesity. Intervene with Weight Bias Weight bias is prevalent and being stigmatized triggers a maladaptive cycle of poor mental and physical health, which compromise uptake of the health behaviours necessary for the prevention of obesity and overweight. Association between clinically meaningful behavior problems and overweight in children.

Other reasons parents gave for driving their children to school included no healh walking route, fear of child predators, and out of convenience for the childhood obesity. There is no consensus on a cut-off point for excess fatness of overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Emerging findings from basic science as well as interventional drug trials utilizing GLP-1 agonists have demonstrated success in effective weight loss in obese adults, adolescents, and pediatric patients. Publication types Review. Despite the remarkable need to prevent childhood obesity and to intervene earlier to prevent excess weight gain in later developmental periods, few interventions have demonstrated long-lasting effects or been implemented at such a scale to have an appreciable public health impact Hales et al

Articles from Journal childhoov Obesity are provided here pubmed health childhood obesity of Hindawi Limited. American Journal of Community Psychology. For example, teasing about weight in childhood may be related to emotional suffering, but at this point the direction of the relationship remains untested empirically. Mealtime structure is important with evidence suggesting that families who eat together consume more healthy foods. Body satisfaction and body weight: gender differences and sociodemographic determinants. Co-morbid psychosocial and emotional problems of obesity generally act as causal or maintaining factors of obesity and thus significantly affect the treatment outcome.

Self-esteem and obesity in children and adolescents: a literature review. Predictors of fat stereotypes among 9-year-old girls and their parents. A combination of both primary and secondary prevention is necessary to achieve the best results.

  • Body satisfaction and body weight: Gender differences and sociodemographic determinants.

  • Kanekar A, Sharma M.

  • Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

  • This may lead to a potential challenge for these children to come forward and opt for healthy programs.

  • In fact, many of the recommendations for the treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity focus on physical outcomes like BMI and body composition with disregard for their impact on psychological or social well-being.

Causes of Childhood Obesity It is obbesity accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences. Gibson LY. Main concepts in this model include psychological factors, mediating variables, and wellness factors. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study. Research has not yet uncovered a clear model to elucidate these relationships.

Endocrine Society. In the clinical environment, techniques such childhood obesity BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness have been used extensively. Eat Weight Disord. Body satisfaction and body weight: Gender differences and sociodemographic determinants. Puhl and Latner [ 49 ] completed a comprehensive literature review on childhood weight-based stigmatization and found that children demonstrate weight bias by associating obesity with a number of undesirable traits and preferring to associate with nonobese peers. While there are many factors and areas to consider when discussing obesity in children and adolescents, there are a few trends that are evident in recent studies.

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