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Twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle: A Twin Study of Human Obesity

A genetic analysis of relative weight among 4, twin pairs, with an emphasis on sex effects. Nutritional stress and growth: sex difference in adaptive response.

Matthew Cox
Sunday, April 11, 2021
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  • Mol Psychiatry ; 12 : — To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

  • Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases. Genes give the body instructions for responding to changes in its environment.

  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index. The recent advance on technology resulted in a growing number of biological data, and from now on the main issue is how to analyse all these information together.

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However, the pathways to childhood obesity are etudies complex and still unclear. We will also briefly refer other factors influencing the susceptibility to weight gain, and the new promising approach based on multi- omics studies to unravel new mechanisms underpinning the development of obesity. Psychological factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

It furthers the University's objective of twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. It is, however, not clear whether this is because of age differences between siblings or different environmental factors affecting BMI in children and their parents, or whether it reflects real differences between adoption and twin studies. Informa healthcare: New York, London,pp 29— J Epidemiol Community Health ; 55 : —

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met and psychiatric disorders: meta-analysis of case-control studies confirm association to substance-related disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Researchers establish efficient genetic engineering platform in Pichia pastoris. Obesity Silver Spring ; 14 — They were either due to a decrease in the additive genetic variance or an increase in the individual environmental variance, both resulting in a decrease in the heritability estimate. The SH2B gene is associated with serum leptin and body fat in normal female twins. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition. According to the study results, obesity significantly decreases the pathways responsible for mitochondrial metabolism in fat tissues.

Physical activity and the association of common FTO gene variants with body mass index and obesity. Obesity risk is associated with carbohydrate intake in women carrying the Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism. Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 6 : doi This conclusion was further confirmed by a Finnish longitudinal twin study that found that the effect of common environment on BMI variation disappeared between 14 and 17 years of age.

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You have full access to this article via your institution. Veerman JL. Eugen Rev ; 56 : 81— The proportion of the BMI variation explained by unique environmental factors was stable over the age groups Figure 1c. Gut microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity.

Full size image. This is, however, an unrealistic assumption as assortative mating, according to several physiological, social and psychological traits, has been well demonstrated. New issue alert. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 22 : — 8. Polygenic obesity is the most common form of obesity in modern societies where the environment favours weight gain due to food abundance and lack of physical activity.

Image Credit: University of Helsinki. Dissecting these associations, identifying causal variation, and unravelling the functional role is a major challenge that lies ahead. The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of AZoLifeSciences. This excess is associated with adverse health effects such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, and cancer.

Prenatal and Early Life

Genetic and environmental factors in relative body weight and human adiposity. However, it is questionable whether these results can be generalized to other obese boy eating dinner groups. Studifs of the recognized complications of obesity are not only strongly influenced by lifestyle factors, but also present with independent genetic predispositions that are notoriously difficult to disentangle in humans. Diabetes Care ; 34 : — Further prospects In spite of the long history of family studies on childhood obesity, there are several areas of research that are only at the beginning.

We utilized this characteristic in our study when looking into the tsudies of weight on tissue function. Most obesity, however, probably results genetics lifestyle complex interactions among multiple genes and environmental factors that remain poorly understood multifactorial obesity. Accepted : 22 September J Clin Invest ; : — Familial clustering of abdominal visceral fat and total fat mass: the Quebec family study. Sex-specific genetic effects influence variation in body composition. J Bone Miner Res ; 12 : —

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Our environment: the physical, social, political, and economic surroundings that influence how much we eat and how active we are. Studies of resemblances and differences among family members, twins, and adoptees offer indirect scientific evidence that a sizable portion of the variation in weight among adults is due to genetic factors. Stunkard, MD ; Terryl T. Int J Obes ; 30 : — Conflict of interest statement. Cristina Padez. Modern food environments are filled with nutrient-poor and energy-dense foods.

Cardon LR. For this particular study, the researchers were interested in quantifying the genetic and environmental influences on body mass index BMI and waist circumference WC. Genetic influences on obesity. Nat Genet ; 41 : 35—

Introduction

Privacy Policy Terms of Use. Biol Psychiatry. Videos More They found an increase in the individual environmental variance of BMI, whereas the additive genetic variance remained stable. There were high correlations between the various phenotypic traits except for height, which was weakly correlated with all other traits Table 2.

In spite of their identical genome, the genes and even mitochondria of twins can function on different activity levels. These studies can be used to find gene variations that play a role in common, complex diseases such as obesity. The use of different linkage disequilibrium patterns in samples from different ethnicities in the previously mentioned efforts is an obvious strategy to attempt to hone in on regions with higher likelihood of containing the etiologic variant. Obesity genes. Thorleifsson et al.

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Article Navigation. Although the mechanisms twinn the observation that physical activity attenuate the influence of obesity- loci in weight gain remain to be explained, the fact that physical activity can lead to temporary appetite suppression, 67 suggests some biologically plausible support for the observed attenuation of obesity risk allele associations. Regarding environmental factors, we focus our attention on how socioeconomic conditions might influence food choice in children. Open in new tab. Psychological factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease. When studying the role of common environment using the twin design, it is noteworthy that small studies may be underpowered to detect this effect.

Twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle all Newsletters ». As a result, even larger and better powered studies have followed, as have multicenter collaborative studies and meta-analyses Table 1which have accumulated more than 20 replicated obesity loci Fig. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, and more. Privacy Policy Terms of Use. Obes Res ; 6 : — Loos et al. Familial aggregation of abdominal visceral fat level: results from the Quebec family study.

Environmental Barriers to Activity

By continuing to browse our website you consent to the use of cookies on this website. Physical activity and the association of common FTO gene variants with body mass index and obesity. PLoS Genet ; 3 : e This website uses cookies. Nat Commun ; 7 :

Chemistry of Food Additives obesitty Preservatives. Anthropometric measurement error and twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle assessment of nutritional status. Published : 11 November They found an increase in the individual environmental variance of BMI, whereas the additive genetic variance remained stable. Prediction of body water and fat in adult Danes from measurement of electrical impedance.

A limitation with these studies is that they cannot identify which genes are responsible. Moleres genetics lifestyle al. HaveRachel M. The role of common environment, however, disappears in adolescence, probably reflecting increasing independence of children from their parents and home environment, resulting in more individualistic eating and exercise behavior.

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The challenge of the gradient. Willer et al. Citing articles via Web of Science

New technique to quantify resistance twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle of plants to microbial pathogens. However, these findings will only yield useful therapeutic interventions, once functional variants are exposed and further molecular and physiologic characterization of the genes and pathways involved is performed. Genetic Studies of Obesity across the Life Span. Genetic heritability and shared environmental influences.

Materials and methods Search strategy We aimed to find all previous family twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle presenting heritability geneetics of obesity in childhood. If this would be the case, common environmental effect should be seen in adult BMI as well, which is, however, rarely the case. This would encourage health interventions in children with genetic susceptibility to obesity. Issue Section:.

Moreover, the integration of multi- omics analysis is now seeing as an important issues to unravel the obesity genetics lifestyle. Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Volume Nettle D. However, some studies could be found reporting the integration of two sets of omics data such as the expression of quantitative trait loci eQTL or the methylation-QTL meQTL.

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Genome-wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesity. Get free access to newly published articles. In these syndromes, obesity is often accompanied by mental retardation, reproductive anomalies, or other problems.

Create a personal account to register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles. Integrated detection and population-genetic analysis of SNPs and copy number variation. Gregory PolandJanel Miller Healio. Abdominal and gynoid fat mass are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in men and women.

  • Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits. Several reviews on obesity point to the potential contribution of environments factors that promote excessive food consumption and discourage physical activity.

  • Identical twins have the same genes, and their weight is usually fairly similar. Rudolf MC, Hochberg Z.

  • Genomics ; 99 : — 7. Gene—environment correlation can be because of a passive, active or reactive correlation.

  • Joseph Mercola and Mercola. Importance of Biotechnology in Agriculture.

  • These results are based on the meta-analysis of the nine existing twin studies. Qian Z.

  • Ann Hum Genet ; 41 : —

Image Credit: University of Helsinki. Obesity-Promoting Genes in an Obesity-Promoting World Genes influence every aspect of human physiology, development, and adaptation. Different strategies studirs how to do this have been proposed and are currently being explored. This is in accordance with findings on BMI in adoption studies, which by including both biologic and adoptive relatives allow separate assessment of genetic and common environmental effects. Importance of Biotechnology in Agriculture. Obesity reduces mitochondrial gene expression in fat tissue.

Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future research. The heritability studies point to obese boy eating dinner high genetic component of obesity, nevertheless until now only a small portion of that component was unravelled. Socioeconomic status and weight control practices in British adults. In addition, it is assumed that the environment before adoption, including prenatal environment, has only a minimal effect on the studied trait and the adoptees have no contacts with biological parents after adoption.

Introduction

Cameron English. Carmichael and McGue 24 carried out a combined analysis of women and men. Suggested Reading.

Genotype-by-nutrient interactions assessed in European obese women. Twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle people probably have some genetic predisposition lifestyld obesity, depending on their family history and ethnicity. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Genome Med ; 7 : JAMA ; : — Abstract In this systematic review, we aimed to collect together all previous twin and adoption studies on childhood and adolescent obesity up to the age of 18 years.

Thorleifsson et al. Researchers recover human environmental genome without skeletal remains. There were highly significant additive genetic and individual environmental components for all traits, whereas the common environmental components were not significantly different from zero in any trait except for hip circumference in women and height in men Table 3. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in overweight and lean subjects: consequences for correlations between anthropometric and other variables. J ScurrahA. SH2B1 Src-homology-2 [SH2] domain-containing putative adaptor protein-1 is associated with increased serum leptin [ 46 ]. Heritability for body mass index was 0.

PLoS Med. In this subgroup of the invited twins, the mean was not significantly different between participants and nonparticipants. BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor and NRXN3 neurexin 3 are linked to substance abuse and reward behavior, probably interfering with dopamine neurotransmission in pathways involved in reward effects, motivation, and decision making [ 4748 ]. All skinfold measurements were made on the right side of the body. Waist circumferences and waist-to-hip ratios have been used as measures of abdominal fatness. Hum Mol Genet. The University of Helsinki has recently completed a twin study that suggests that the machinery responsible for handling the energy in fat tissues is performing poorly in obesity.

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Early nutrition, epigenetic changes at twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle and imprinted genes, and enhanced susceptibility to adult chronic diseases. The study lifestype at the University of Helsinki included a total of 49 pairs of identical twins discordant for body weight: the metabolism and body composition of these twins were comprehensively analyzed and biopsies from muscle and adipose tissues were obtained. In this interview, News-Medical speaks to Dr. No, vaccines are not harmful. MicroRNAs: a new class of regulatory genes affecting metabolism.

Download Twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle Copy. Differences in habitual dietary intake are also partly determined by differences obssity genes influencing smell and taste preferences. These results are similar to those of other twin studies of these measures and suggest that human fatness is under substantial genetic control. No significant differences were found in MZ and DZ correlation between the participants and nonparticipants MZ correlations were 0.

  • Modern food environments are filled with nutrient-poor and energy-dense foods.

  • Finding Genes for Common Obesity The search for obesity susceptibility variants was initially carried out using candidate-gene association studies or linkage analysis.

  • In the latter case, malnutrition, infections and infestations will probably also have a major role in growth and weight development. Genetic factors have an important effect on BMI variation, but common environmental effects are also substantial in childhood.

  • For this particular study, the researchers were interested in quantifying the genetic and environmental influences on body mass index BMI and waist circumference WC.

  • Antibodies Subscribe or Preview. Lean body mass was assessed by subtracting body fat in kg from body weight in kg.

This is in accordance with findings on BMI in adoption studies, genetics lifestyle by including both biologic and adoptive relatives allow separate assessment of genetic and common environmental effects. The genetic contribution to non-syndromic human obesity. Only the mitochondria of fat tissue were linked to negative health effects. GLP Annual Reports.

SH2B1 Src-homology-2 [SH2] domain-containing putative adaptor protein-1 is associated with increased serum leptin [ 46 ]. Moreover, possible sex- and age-dependency of these sources of bias may confound sex and age effects in the genetic and environmental influences. Gene-environment interaction and obesity. Comments 0. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. These studies have identified variants in several genes that may contribute to obesity by increasing hunger and food intake. SH2B1 enhances insulin sensitivity by both stimulating the insulin receptor and inhibiting tyrosine dephosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins.

Environmental Barriers to Activity

Different strategies for how to do this have been proposed and are currently being explored. A large-scale genome-wide association study of Asian populations uncovers genetic factors influencing eight quantitative traits. This will add new common variants, with small effect sizes, that are robustly associated with these obesity phenotypes. This excess is associated with adverse health effects such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, and cancer.

Stunkard, MD ; Terryl T. Evaluating coverage of genome-wide association studies. Endocr Rev. Non-synonymous polymorphisms in melanocortin-4 receptor protect against obesity: the two facets of a Janus obesity gene. First Name.

Low physical activity accentuates the effect twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle the FTO rs polymorphism on body fat accumulation. Download references. These studies have identified lufestyle in several genes that may contribute to obesity by increasing hunger and food intake. Genetic predictors of obesity. We used a random-effects model that allows the true effects to vary around an average effect on the basis of a normal distribution.

Prenatal and Early Life

Ethnic and twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors: findings for women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, — Int J Obes ; 33 : 29— However, genes rarely have by itself the power to determine an individual's anatomy, physiology or behaviour. Beauchamp GKMoran M.

  • Effect allele is based on the meta-analysis of GWAS association data.

  • Genetic and behavioral influences on body fat distribution. Korkeila et al 22 estimated the heritability for BMI in different age groups.

  • Most obesity, however, probably results from complex interactions among multiple genes and environmental factors that remain poorly understood multifactorial obesity.

  • Complete studies require that there is information on biological relatives of adoptees, allowing direct estimation of genetic effect. Genome-wide meta-analysis ofadults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits.

  • New study identifies two genetic regions linked to cluster headache. Issue Date : 01 January

Work on obesity-related gene-environment interactions is still in its infancy. Prev Med Baltim ; 44 : — 5. The common environmental factors showed a substantial effect in ggenetics, but this effect disappeared at adolescence. Abstract Background. Because we were primarily interested in the change of the genetic architecture of obesity, we selected for further analyses only twin studies reporting age-specific results. Literature selection was performed between December and Mayfocusing on the most relevant articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals.

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Future studies focusing twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle gene—lifestyle interactions, genetics or environment factors will definitively help to understand the complex architecture obesihy obesity onset and development. These modifications were shown to be important in the regulation of gene expression. Issue Date : January The study, conducted in 17, Danes, found that people who carried the obesity-promoting gene, and who were inactive, had higher BMIs than people without the gene variant who were inactive. Overview of animal models of obesity. Nat Rev Genet.

  • Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. There are still few studies based on this approach regarding the obesity condition.

  • Behavior genetic approaches in behavioral medicine. The Bottom Line: Healthy Environments and Lifestyles Can Counteract Gene-Related Risks Having a better understanding of the genetic contributions to obesity-especially common obesity-and gene-environment interactions will generate a better understanding of the causal pathways that lead to obesity.

  • A clear age pattern was present. This results in a modest overestimation of heritability of BMI when only information on participating twins was used.

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Google Scholar. Of the 8, families they contacted, 62 per cent returned the questionnaire, and after excluding families where twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle twin had a specific medical condition and for other reasons, 5, families twin pairs remained in the study. Willer et al. Further relevant articles were hand-searched based on the references of the selected studies. Int J Obes Lond ; 32 : —

The study showed, however, consistent positive associations between intake of sugar-sweetened soft drink and BMI, FMI and waist circumference in men. Obesity is no exception. You might also like In spite of their identical genome, the genes and even mitochondria of twins can function on different activity levels. The genetic component for waist circumference was 0.

What kind of scientific study was this?

Sex differences in genetic and environmental factors contributing to body-height. Cell Metab. However, there was no strong evidence of common environmental effects under the assumption of no nonadditive genetic effects. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Purchase access Subscribe now.

Buckler JM, Green M. With the advance of lfestyle and the completion of Human genome project our knowledge on eating dinner genetic basis of obesity increased drastically in the last years. A systematic literature search of most relevant original, review and meta-analysis, restricted to English was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar up to May concerning the contribution of genetics and environmental factors to obesity. Wang Y, Lobstein T.

Doing a better job of explaining obesity in terms of genes and twon factors could help encourage people who are trying to reach and maintain a healthy weight. Sobal J, Stunkard AJ. Public Health Nutr ; 12 : — Nature ; : — 5. Especially, we will analyze whether the genetic architecture of obesity changes from childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. Stata J ; 8 : 3—

Obesity also affected amino acid metabolism

It is worth noticing that considerable variation between machines, calibrations, operators, and sites will introduce noise even in these twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle adiposity measures and that the most successful studies will put emphasis on both of these. Scimex February 1, Current estimates suggest that by more than million individuals worldwide will be obese [ 6 ]. In conclusion, twin studies, including our study, confirm that the measures applied for general body fat, shape, and composition in adults are strongly influenced by genetic factors, but that there is a tendency for decreasing genetic influence with increasing age. Minus Related Pages.

In this interview, News-Medical speaks to Dr. Read full, original post: This protein could explain fat and thin identical twins. Download references. Hum Mol Genet.

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Inter-individual variations along any of these omics levels contribute to the wide range of phenotype variability observed in human subjects. Other studies have compared obese and non-obese people for variation in genes that could influence behaviors such as a drive to overeat, or a tendency to be sedentary or metabolism such as a diminished capacity to use dietary fats as fuel, or an increased tendency to store body fat. Nutr Rev. Science ; : — Phillips et al.

Correspondence to K Silventoinen. Epigenetics of obesity. Nat Genet ; 41 : 18 — Oncotarget ; doi Nat Genet ; 40 : —

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Collaboration APCS. A high intake of saturated fatty acids strengthens the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and BMI. Issue Date : January TubbsRobert M. Home environment relationships with children's physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status.

Reliability of anthropometric measurements in overweight and lean subjects: consequences for correlations between twin studies obesity and other variables. Height, which can be lufestyle as an indirect measure of lean body mass, exhibited high heritability estimates, greater for women genetisc for men, who, in contrast, were under more influence of the common environment than women. Analyses of twin studies assume that intrapair variance of MZ twins is due to environmental factors and measurement errors, while intrapair variance in DZ twins is additionally affected by genetic factors. Estimates of the sources of variation variance components of bioelectric impedance and anthropometric measurements in an epidemiological case—control study of breast cancer. This is the first-ever study to compare the impact of obesity, particularly on the mitochondria in muscle tissue in the identical twin pairs: muscle mitochondria were also found to be out of tune, but the change was less pronounced than in the adipose tissue. Physical activity and the association of common FTO gene variants with body mass index and obesity. Endocr Rev.

Genes influence every aspect of human physiology, development, and adaptation. These loss-of-function mutations are rare and generally cause deficiencies in food intake, and energy homoeostasis. Ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex differences in physical activity among adolescents. Genome-wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesity. Changes in assortative mating: the impact of age and education, — A high intake of saturated fatty acids strengthens the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and BMI. However, some studies could be found reporting the integration of two sets of omics data such as the expression of quantitative trait loci eQTL or the methylation-QTL meQTL.

By continuing to use our site, or clicking "Continue," you are agreeing to our Cookie Policy Continue. Common nonsynonymous variants in PCSK1 confer risk of obesity. Int J Epidemiol ; 24 : — Extensions to pedigree analysis. Institutional sign in: OpenAthens Shibboleth.

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If mitochondria, the cellular powerplants, genetica compared to the engine of a car, you could say that the power output decreases twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle weight increases. There was no strong evidence of common environmental effects under the assumptions of no nonadditive effect. Ben Weinstein. It takes a long time for new mutations or polymorphisms to spread. A linear function is likely to be robust to outliers and is expected to detect an increasing or decreasing trend.

These ,ifestyle can be seen in groups of people obese boy eating dinner the same racial or ethnic background and even within families. J ScurrahA. In genetically identical mice and human twin pairs, epigenetic marks altered the activity of weight-control genes to produce distinct subpopulations of lean and obese individuals. Schousboe, K. References 1.

Acknowledgments Dr. Nat Genet. Obesity has become a major health concern due to the increased risk of co-morbidities, resulting in decreased quality of life, stigmatization, reduced working ability and early death. Loos et al.

Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for metabolic disease. Demography ; 35 : — Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. A clear age pattern was present.

These loss-of-function mutations are rare and generally gentics deficiencies in food intake, and energy homoeostasis. Obesity is also a hallmark of several genetic syndromes caused by mutation or chromosomal abnormalities, such as Prader—Willi and Bardet-Biedl syndromes. However, genes rarely have by itself the power to determine an individual's anatomy, physiology or behaviour.

Childhood overweight and obesity. Physiol Behav ; 88 : — Health care practitioners routinely collect family health history to help identify people at high risk of obesity-related lifesyle twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some forms of cancer. Br J Nutr ; : — 8. Get free access to newly published articles Create a personal account or sign in to: Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles Access PDFs of free articles Manage your interests Save searches and receive search alerts.

J Pediatr ; 91 : — McLaren L. Qian Z. J Nutr ; : — Discussion Role of genes and environment in childhood obesity In this systematic review of twin and adoption studies, we found clear evidence that both genetic and common environmental factors affect BMI variation in childhood, but the effect of common environment disappears in adolescence. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs polymorphism on body fat accumulation.

Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future twin studies obesity genetics lifestyle. Gene-based meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies implicates new loci involved in obesity. This conclusion was further confirmed by a Finnish longitudinal twin study that found that the effect of common environment on BMI variation disappeared between 14 and 17 years of age. PLoS One ; 5 : e

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