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Wang 2001 obesity rates: Recent origin and evolution of obesity-income correlation across the United States

Equivalent figures for girls classed as obese were 21 per cent and 10 per cent 8.

Matthew Cox
Saturday, March 20, 2021
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  • Under SL, obesity may also increase through social influence.

  • Among women in —, non-Hispanic black women

  • Overweight prevalence and trends for children and adolescents.

  • Tracking the Global Epidemic Once just a problem of wealthy nations, obesity now impacts countries at all economic levels, bringing with it a wave of ill health and lost productivity. Among women in —, non-Hispanic black women

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Section Navigation. Physical obesity rates. Statistical Bulletin. Of all high income countries, the United States has the highest rates of overweight and obesity, with fully a third of the population obese-a rate projected to rise to around 50 percent by Observations for pregnant women and for persons missing a valid height or weight measurement were not included in the data analysis.

We used family income as a primary indicator of SES, while rural-urban residence might serve as an additional indicator. Pharmacol Biochem Behav wng 1 — Rise in state-level obesity rates in four different states, showing the fit of the adoption curve Eq. Using an international standard, we studied childhood obesity and the associations between socioeconomic status SES factors and obesity in the US, Russia and China. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. We observed that over ten years, the regression coefficient on leisure in predicting obesity increased from 0.

As there are also unobservable connections between leisure and ratss, however, we follow the cautious approach of Glaeser et al. These may suggest that the SES differences across wang 2001 obesity rates groups are likely the main explanation for the difference in obesity prevalence across ethnic groups. In the current analysis, trend tests were conducted on different age groups. Persons with no telephone might be of lower socioeconomic status 9a factor associated with obesity 10 ; exclusion of these persons might result in underreporting of obesity prevalence.

References

Staying active and exercising regularly is key for a healthy life. Physical activity. In Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate.

For the Obesitu, to achieve national representative prevalence estimates, sampling weights were used to adjust for sample design effects. Across all counties in any given year, the leisure statistic correlates best with both obesity but also with income, reflecting the feedback between income, health habits and obesity Table 2. Shrewsbury V, Wardle J Socioeconomic status and adiposity in childhood: a systematic review of cross—sectional studies — Age-specific stabilization in obesity prevalence in German children: a cross-sectional study from to In China, however, high-income children and adolescents were more likely to be obese.

Pregnant females were excluded from all analyses. While this is some evidence for social influence, these estimates might overstate the true social multiplier, due to correlation between demographics and unobservable elements Glaeser et al. Crude estimates of obesity among all adults are also presented. Sobal and Stunkard suggested that research was needed to examine whether the relationships change with age in children and adolescents.

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Dietary habits are often determined as much by cultural traditions as they are by nutritional needs and family economics Anderson and Whitaker, ; Anderson, ; Hughes et al. The most recent data presented in this analysis are fromand trends were analyzed between and with 5 time periods. Use of the body mass index BMI as a measure of overweight in children and adolescents. Hence following Glaeser et al. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author.

  • InHispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic Asians were oversampled. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.

  • Obesity in children has a marked social gradient. During the physical examination, conducted in a mobile examination center, height and weight were measured as part of a comprehensive set of body measurements.

  • Public health strategies for preventing and controlling overweight and obesity in school and worksite settings: a report on recommendations of the task force on community preventive services. Philos Trans R Soc B

  • Littman MS. Select Format Select format.

Tackling obesity in England. Wang 2001 obesity rates Navigation. Of all high income countries, the United States has the highest rates of overweight and obesity, with fully a third of the population obese-a rate projected to rise to around 50 percent by Harvard T. Statistical Bulletin. Pregnant females were excluded from the analysis. Recent trends in the United States show that the proportion of teenagers with pre-diabetes or full-blown type 2 diabetes has more than doubled in recent years although the prevalence of childhood obesity is levelling off.

Email Address. Create wany free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, and more. The prevalence of obesity was lower in non-Hispanic Asian youth 8. Trends were analyzed separately for infants, children, and adults because of different definitions. N Engl J Med — The colored lines in Fig.

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Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Abstract There are many published methods for predicting resting energy expenditure REE from measured body composition. The poor have higher rates than those with higher income. Childhood obesity.

  • Sign in to save your search Sign in to your personal account.

  • Between — and —, the prevalence of obesity among men increased Figure 3 :.

  • Data availability All data we used for this study are publicly—accessible, aggregated data. By contrast, in China the high-income groups generally were at a higher risk of obesity.

  • The poor have higher rates than those with higher income. The population is currently eating too much fat, sugar and salt, and not enough fruit, vegetables and fibre, although those in high-income groups are consuming more fruit and vegetables than those in low-income groups.

  • There has been variable progress in improving population diet.

It is possible to examine trends wanb among adults aged 20— Beyond North America, the regions of Europe, South and Central America, Western Pacific, and parts of Africa and Asia also have elevated obesity rates, with only a handful of areas with low and consistent levels of obesity. There has been a relatively steady reduction in the consumption of salt in recent years, but the consumption of fat and saturated fats has hardly changed. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Estimates suggest that in England physical inactivity causes 10 per cent of heart disease, 13 per cent of type 2 diabetes, 18 per cent of breast cancer and 17 per cent of all mortality 9.

JAMA ; Freedman, PhD. The reverse gradient involving diabetes prevalence also developed in the U. J Pediatr ; : — Obes Res — J Pediatr. The literature has another major gap because a large number of studies on adults have examined the relationship between socioeconomic status SES factors and obesity, but less research has used data representing large populations to examine the effects of these relationships on children.

Trends in obesity and overweight prevalence since — are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. The relative risks are based on a comprehensive review of international literature that was carried out by the National Audit Office, to provide the best estimates that could be applied to the English population 2. Beyond North America, the regions of Europe, South and Central America, Western Pacific, and parts of Africa and Asia also have elevated obesity rates, with only a handful of areas with low and consistent levels of obesity. Gov't, P. The proportion of children who are overweight, including obese, increases as the income quintile decreases 5.

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Studies of the dietary habits, food consumption and nutrient intakes of adolescents and young adults. Accessed on 20 Oct You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Editorial Note:. Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature.

  • Ogden, PhD. Hales, MD; Margaret D.

  • Results aang multiple factors logistic regression analysis also indicated that healthy lifestyle including reducing cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and increasing daily exercises in the last 10 years, also played roles in the decrease of prevalence rates on both overweight and obesity. Health Risks : An overview of obesity-related diseases and conditions Beyond North America, the regions of Europe, South and Central America, Western Pacific, and parts of Africa and Asia also have elevated obesity rates, with only a handful of areas with low and consistent levels of obesity.

  • Productivity measures include employees being absent from work for obesity-related health reasons, decreased productivity while at work, and premature death and disability. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med ; : —

  • Drugs such as steroids and some antidepressants may also cause weight gain.

  • Results: In this population, the age-adjusted means on BMI were NHS Information Centre

Conclusion: The mean BMI and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity decreased in the last year period, Health Survey for England Trend Tables. The population is currently eating too much fat, sugar and salt, and not enough fruit, vegetables and fibre, although those in high-income groups are consuming more fruit and vegetables than those in low-income groups. Of all high income countries, the United States has the highest rates of overweight and obesity, with fully a third of the population obese-a rate projected to rise to around 50 percent by Obesity Prevention Source Menu.

Overall, wanb infants and toddlers from birth to aged 2 years, 8. The small wang 2001 obesity rates sizes did not allow us to conduct meaningful comparisons. Figure 7 shows typical examples. Watch The Obesity Epidemic external icon to learn about factors that contribute to the obesity epidemic, as well as several community initiatives to prevent and reduce obesity. In China richer people have better access to meat and other energy-dense foods which are much more expensive than other foods such as vegetables than the poor.

Tracking the Global Epidemic Once just a problem of wealthy nations, obesity now impacts countries at all economic levels, bringing with it a wave of ill health and lost productivity. References 1. Cancel Continue. Adult obesity.

Consequences of Obesity

Age was adjusted. Handb Social Econ 1B— CDC's Coordinated School Health Program works through state education and health agencies to improve nutrition and increase physical activity in schools.

Detailed descriptions of the RLMS have been published elsewhere. Download all slides. Besides the suggestive temporal concurrence between obesity, food deserts and HFCS—sweetened beverages, additional clues lie in the considerable variation in the strength and evolution of the reverse gradient within different states of the U. Advance article alerts. Height was measured without shoes to the nearest tenth of a centimetre using a portable stadiometer. Obes Rev.

The y —axis on the left covers all data series except advertising expenditures, which uses the y —axis on the right. Multiple CDC programs address prevention of obesity through nutrition and physical activity. High adiposity and high body mass index-for-age in US children and adolescents overall and by race-ethnic group. In contrast, in China urban boys had higher BMI. Acta Paediatr. Am J Hum Biol 24 3 — For the leisure statistic infor example, the relationship with both obesity and diabetes is strongly positive and linear Figs.

Smith TG Household—level financial uncertainty could be the primary driver of the rated obesity epidemic. Public wang 2001 obesity rates strategies for preventing and controlling overweight and obesity in school and worksite settings: a report on recommendations of the task force on community preventive services. For the time series of state—level obesity rates from toregression analyses serve to rule out any strong social—shaped pattern in obesity rise for any of the U. Must A, Strauss RS.

The U. Bythe reverse gradient in the U. In addition, since the distribution of BMI in ratea sample was slightly skewed, we repeated the regression analyses using natural logarithms transformed BMI. Article Navigation. Figures 3a, b show the actual and fitted values of the regressions of obesity and diabetes, respectively, on the log of income in both and

Abstract There are many published methods for predicting resting energy expenditure REE from measured body composition. National, regional, and global trends wqng body-mass index since systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with country-years and 9. Our classification scheme is founded on body composition level whole-body, tissue-organ, cellular, and molecular and related components as the REE predictor variables. Results: In this population, the age-adjusted means on BMI were

Am J Clin Nutr wang 2001 obesity rates 59 : — Citing articles via Web ratds Science Local linear regression is a powerful approach, but does not yield a specific functional form. Hales, MD. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services has identified evidence-based strategies to reduce weight and increase physical activity. Moreover our analysis stratified by gender indicates that in both China and Russia but not the USboys and girls are at different risks even if they have the same SES Table 4.

Introduction

Craig M. In conclusion, obesity is 20011 a public health problem influencing children and adolescents in both developed and developing countries. On average American and Russian children and adolescents were taller and heavier than their Chinese counterparts. Recently WHO acknowledged an urgent need to examine child obesity across countries using a standardized international standard. The most recent data presented in this analysis are fromand trends were analyzed between and with 5 time periods.

Wang 2001 obesity rates who exercise regularly are likely to have improved functional and cognitive health. InStamatakis et obeity used childhood and adolescent obesity trends from to in England from the Health Survey for England to project growth in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Report by the comptroller and auditor general HC Session 15 Feb Current government recommendations for adults are for at least 30 minutes of at least moderate activity, either in one session or in multiple bouts of at least 10 minutes, on five or more days each week. Health Survey for England Trend Tables. Results: In this population, the age-adjusted means on BMI were Population eating habits While the number of children eating the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables has increased in recent years, 80 per cent of children still do not eat the recommended '5-a-day'.

Ogden, Ph. Obesity rates vary across the country and are higher for women in lowest income quintiles. Statistical Bulletin. Hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia remained as risk factors of overweight and obesity. Results: In this population, the age-adjusted means on BMI were

The absolute decreases ranged from 0. To reduce obesity in the United States, an effective public health response will require a robust combination of policies, programs, and supportive environments created through the combined activities of health-care agencies, government, media, business and industry, communities, schools, families, and individuals. Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House, This ODE can be solved for F t,i. Under SL, obesity may also increase through social influence. Multiple CDC programs address prevention of obesity through nutrition and physical activity. Sign in to save your search Sign in to your personal account.

Estimates suggest that being overweight BMI 25 to less than 30 reduces life expectancy by about three years, and being obese BMI rstes or more can reduce life expectancy by 10 years 1. Inaround three in ten children aged 2 to 15 were classed as either overweight or obese 5. Positive correlations were found between the levels of blood pressure, glucose and lipids and BMI. Between — and —, the prevalence of obesity among men increased Figure 3 :. Among men, there was a significant linear increase between — and —, but no change between — and —

Obesity and its associated health problems have a significant economic impact on the US health care system, 11 including direct and indirect costs. Raes in several genes may contribute to obesity by increasing hunger and food intake. Instead, many have recommended the use of the BMI 95th percentile to define child and adolescent obesity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention a Behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Healthy people conference ed, in 2 vols.

ALSO READ: Med13 Obesity Hypoventilation

Health Survey for England data. Adults also showed an improving trend untilwhen numbers began to fall and 70 per cent of adults still do not eat the recommended amount. It is associated with an increased risk of diseases including diabetes, heart disease, osteoarthritis and cancer. Once just a problem of wealthy nations, obesity now impacts countries at all economic levels, bringing with it a wave of ill health and lost productivity. Among women, however, there was no significant change between — and —

Although these published reports extend back almost a century, new related studies appear foresight systems map on obesity 2007 a regular basis. Obeity is a distinct north-south divide 1. These estimates are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Children in the highest income quintiles are the least likely to be obese, whereas the proportion of obese children is highest in the lowest income quintiles. Bringing the problem back under control will take multifaceted country-level as well as global-level efforts, and they cannot begin in earnest soon enough. Each existing REE prediction method by body composition must belong to one body composition level. Health Survey for England -

  • In contrast, in developing countries a strong relationship exists between SES and obesity among men, women, and children. We applied two separate but complementary approaches.

  • In the lowest quintile, 20 per cent of boys and per cent of girls are obese.

  • Because there is no recommended definition of obesity in children younger than 2 years, excess weight was defined as a weight for recumbent length at or above the 95th percentile on the CDC sex-specific weight for recumbent length growth charts, similar to what has been presented in previous analyses.

  • Crude estimates not age adjusted for are

  • Tackling obesity in England.

  • For the US, in all regression analyses, wang 2001 obesity rates design effects were adjusted, and the effect of ethnicity was also examined. As wealth mitigates survival risk, HBE predicts a positive correlation between BMI and wealth, as humans have evolved to store calories as insurance against future famine or food shortage Shrewsbury and Wardle, ; Higginson et al.

Health Risks : An overview of obesity-related diseases and conditions Beyond North America, the regions of Europe, South and Central America, Obesty Pacific, and parts of Africa and Asia also have elevated obesity rates, with only a handful of areas with low and consistent levels of obesity. Obesity is defined as having a body mass index BMI greater than or equal to National Center for Health Statistics. CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website. The relative risks are based on a comprehensive review of international literature that was carried out by the National Audit Office, to provide the best estimates that could be applied to the English population 2.

Figure 5 shows how, at 5—year intervals from tothe rate of growth in obesity or diabetes per year was inversely related to rates household income. Evidence that the prevalence of childhood overweight is plateauing: data from nine countries. Food Supply, — Author Contributions: Dr Ogden had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Obesity and its associated health problems have a significant economic impact on the US health care system, 11 including direct and indirect costs. Modern Epidemiology.

Results of linear unadjusted trend tests between and are shown in Table 6. As there are also unobservable connections between leisure and obesity, however, we follow the cautious approach of Glaeser et al. Open in new tab Download slide.

  • Compared to their rural counterparts, urban Chinese usually have higher family income, better access to food especially meat and poultrypublic services such as health care and transportation. Bythe age-adjusted prevalence of obesity in the U.

  • Page last reviewed: November 6, Content source:.

  • Pregnant girls were excluded.

  • Purchase access Subscribe to the journal.

  • Page last reviewed: November 6, Content source:. Obesity is defined as having a body mass index BMI greater than or equal to

  • This amounts to ten sets of annual data, on several variables, for U. The national total population was million in China, million in the US, and million in Russia in the early s; and their total populations account for over a quarter of the global population.

Health Survey wanb England - In wang 2001 obesity rates, 72 per cent of boys and 63 per cent of girls met the recommended level, compared with 70 per cent and 61 per cent respectively in 9. Inaround three in ten children aged 2 to 15 were classed as either overweight or obese 5. Lancetvolnopp —

By contrast, in China the high-income groups generally were at a higher risk of obesity. These may suggest that the SES differences across ethnic groups are likely the main explanation for the difference in obesity prevalence across ethnic groups. Analyses were conducted with SAS version 9. Additionally, there is a lack of evidence for a deep cultural history to obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 79 4 — To effectively fight the global obesity epidemic, population-based social and environmental approaches should be considered.

Our classification scheme is founded on body composition level whole-body, tissue-organ, cellular, and molecular and related components as the REE wanh variables. There are significant racial and ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence among U. Among women, however, there was no significant change between — and — Equivalent figures for girls classed as obese were 21 per cent and 10 per cent 8.

In72 per cent of boys and 63 per cent of girls met the recommended level, compared with 70 per cent and 61 per cent respectively in 9. Census Bureau estimates using the age groups, and 60 years and over. There are significant racial and ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence among U. Data and Statistics.

The prevalence of adult obesity increased from 15 per cent in to 26 per cent in Adult wanf child obesity — using Health Survey wang 2001 obesity rates England data. In the lowest quintile, 20 per cent of boys and per cent of girls are obese. Health Risks : An overview of obesity-related diseases and conditions Beyond North America, the regions of Europe, South and Central America, Western Pacific, and parts of Africa and Asia also have elevated obesity rates, with only a handful of areas with low and consistent levels of obesity. The proportion of children who are overweight, including obese, increases as the income quintile decreases 5. Estimates suggest that being overweight BMI 25 to less than 30 reduces life expectancy by about three years, and being obese BMI 30 or more can reduce life expectancy by 10 years 1.

There is a relationship between consumption of fruit and vegetables and income quintiles, wang 2001 obesity rates consumption increasing as income increases as the graph below shows. Adults also showed an improving trend untilwhen numbers began to fall and 70 per cent of adults still do not eat the recommended amount. Relative risk factors for obese people of developing disease by gender The table below indicates the extent to which obesity increases the risks of developing a number of diseases relative to the non-obese population. Among men, there was a significant linear increase between — and —, but no change between — and —

  • We used family income as a primary indicator of SES, while rural-urban residence might serve as an additional indicator.

  • Crude estimates not age adjusted for are Population eating habits While the number of children eating the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables has increased in recent years, 80 per cent of children still do not eat the recommended '5-a-day'.

  • Due to missing data at the county level, we excluded Alaska from all analyses at county level, while including Alaska for state-level analysis.

  • A healthy diet pattern follows the Dietary Guidelines for Americans external icon which emphasizes eating whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean protein, low-fat and fat-free dairy products, and drinking water.

Local linear regression is a powerful approach, but does wang 2001 obesity rates yield a specific functional form. Table Return to top. In contrast, industrially—processed foods have transformed Western human diets obedity less than a century. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. These CDC data come from health-related telephone surveys, which began in with 15 U. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. This amounts to ten sets of annual data, on several variables, for U.

Br Med J ; : — By in the U. Our study has several limitations. The percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 19 years with BMI greater than or equal to 30, meeting the adult definition of obesity, was

Materials and Methods

Lancetvolnopp — Fruit and vegetable indicators by equivalised income. Positive correlations were found between the levels of blood pressure, glucose and lipids and BMI. Between — and —, the prevalence of obesity among women increased Figure 4 :.

Healthy lifestyle in elderly seemed obezity account for the declined BMI. Statistical Bulletin. National, rates, and global trends in body-mass index since systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with country-years and 9. Am J Clin Nutr. Census Bureau estimates using the age groups, and 60 years and over. The poor have higher rates than those with higher income.

Abstract There are many published methods for predicting resting energy expenditure REE from measured body composition. Skip to content Obesity Prevention Source. Health Survey for England Healthy lifestyles: knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Section Navigation.

Equivalent figures for girls classed wanv obese were 21 per cent and 10 per cent 8. It remains unclear what the similarities and differences are among these various methods and what, if any, advantages the newly introduced REE prediction models offer. Staying active and exercising regularly is key for a healthy life. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. There are significant racial and ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence among U.

The y —axis on the left covers all data series except advertising expenditures, which uses the y —axis on the right. Learn about community strategies to make it easier to be physically active. Years of data collection — Sample size Age years Learn more about obesity and genomics. On average American and Russian children and adolescents were taller and heavier than their Chinese counterparts. In some cases, adjustments are made to account for these multiple comparisons, and a P value lower than.

That said, the trend might be due to unobserved individual—level effects, such as the more leisure, the more HFCS drinks consumed. Trends were analyzed separately for infants, children, and adults because of different definitions. Bentley RA, Ormerod Aang A rapid method for assessing social versus independent interest in health issues. Obesity is also associated with the leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. In addition, adults need to do activities that strengthen muscles at least 2 days a week. BRFSS data files are weighted to the respondent's probability of being selected and to the age- race- and sex-specific populations from the annually adjusted census for each state. Download PDF.

BMI, however, is not a perfect measure of body fat. Faced with this problem, Glaeser et al. Available at: www.

Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Trends in child obesity prevalence. The current levels of inactivity in the population present a major threat to public health. In — and —, there were no significant differences between racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence of obesity among men. Adult obesity. People who exercise regularly are likely to have improved functional and cognitive health.

These correlations have been demonstrated cross-sectionally but not longitudinally, however, and therefore it is not possible to establish their causality Boden and McLeod, Prevalence of obesity in Taiwan. Obesity estimates for total adults aged 20 years and older were wang 2001 obesity standardized to the projected estimates of the US Census by the direct method, using the age groups 20 to 39 years, 40 to 59 years, and 60 years and older. Using an international standard, we studied childhood obesity and the associations between socioeconomic status SES factors and obesity in the US, Russia and China. Since the CHNS study, however, was designed to monitor nationwide trends, provinces of different geography, economic development, public resources, and health indicators have been included.

In China, however, high-income children and adolescents were more likely to be obese. Prevalence of adult a obesity and b diabetes inmapped at the scale of U. Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Sign In. All analyses were performed by using SAS Version 6.

Each existing REE prediction method by body composition must belong to one body composition level. Of all high income countries, the United States has the highest rates wang 2001 obesity rates overweight and obesity, with fully a third of the population obese-a rate projected to rise to around 50 percent by Am J Clin Nutr. The poor have higher rates than those with higher income. Obesity Prevention Source Menu. Government recommendations for children and young people are for a minimum of 60 minutes of at least moderate activity each day.

Health Survey for England - After rising steadily since the early s, rates of childhood obesity are stabilising. Child trend tables National Obesity Observatory Between — and —, the prevalence of obesity among women increased Figure 4 :.

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