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Body mass index reference curves for the uk flag: Association between body mass index and prognosis of patients hospitalized with heart failure

All other outcomes were fitted with transformed age with zero offset, which also improves the fit even for non-monotonic data.

Matthew Cox
Friday, May 14, 2021
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  • A waiver of written informed consent from each patient was granted by the institutional review boards of Kyoto University and each participating center as the study met the conditions of the Japanese ethical guidelines for epidemiological study 20 ,

  • In public health, the first thousand days are now well-established to represent a critical developmental period, during which variability in tissue accretion has major implications for long-term health [ 23242526 ].

  • European Heart Journal ; 29 : — First, we found few associations between PWV and conventional markers of cardiometabolic risk, in particular standardised BP.

  • Reference values of body composition obtained by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in preterm and term neonates. Email address.

  • Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences revised ed.

Introduction

Seko and T. It was suggested that low birth weight babies, experiencing foetal energy insufficiency, had sacrificed organs such as the pancreas in order to protect the brain [ 3143 ]. Fig 2.

Davies PS, Lucas A. Front Pediatr, 04 Jun CAS Google Scholar 8. In order curvez maximize consistency between these new centiles and those published previously for the age range 5 to 20 years [ 15 ], data for children aged 4. Do growth chart centiles need a face lift? Further reading Association between admission criteria and body composition among young children with moderate acute malnutrition, a cross-sectional study from Burkina Faso Christian FabiansenBernardette CichonCharles W. In addition, where patients may have dehydration, or over-hydration from edema, measurements of TBW may remain difficult to interpret.

We did not curvees collect adequate data on breast-feeding status at later ages to allow accurate categorization of feeding mode. In early infancy, though weight gain is slowing, males gain FFM faster than females, who show slightly faster FM accretion. The NCMP is an annual programme that measures the height and weight of over 1 million children in Reception aged 4 to 5 years and Year 6 aged 10 to 11 years in mainstream state-funded schools in England [footnote 1]. Int J Obes. Do growth chart centiles need a face lift? Prevalence of underweight, in children measured in the NCMPis lower than that seen in the British reference population and is therefore not currently a public health concern. Trends in underweight and overweight are not examined in this report, unlike in previous reports in this series, to improve the readability of the charts.

Body composition, leg length and fod pressure in a rural Italian population: a test of the capacity-load model. Acta Paediatrica ; 97 : — We calculated an mMED score adapted from the Mediterranean diet scale devised by Trichopoulou and colleagues [ 34 ] using previously defined food items [ 35 ], but the scoring was modified according to Knudsen and colleagues, rendering a continuous score [ 36 ].

Historical cohort studies and the early origins of disease hypothesis: making sense of the evidence. Flagg and Child Health Journal ; 16 : — We conducted a population-based cohort study that included women and men with time-updated lifestyle information. Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort. It would also be possible to use the modified z-scores to identify children who would have been flagged with the older WHO cut-points.

Low participation levels for Year 6 between to and to led to underestimation of obesity prevalence and these years are not included in the analysis for Year 6 when looking at prevalence trends over time. Even in the s, the children we studied were on average heavier and taller than the British reference data, but importantly, there was no difference in BMI. In Reception boys:. Trends in prevalence by weight category, age, sex and ethnicity 7. Page last reviewed: 15 July Next review due: 15 July

Lancet ; : — Influence of obesity on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in the early teens. Int J Obes ; 34 :4—5. Birth size, adult body composition and muscle strength in later life. World Health Organization.

Childhood body mass index and adult referenfe and pro-thrombotic risk factors: data from the New Delhi birth cohort. When compared with the Official Statistics of Sweden, the cohorts well represented the Swedish population in in terms of age distribution, educational level, prevalence of overweight and obesity, and smoking status [ 32 ]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ; 83 : — We therefore review this new opportunity for indexing metabolic capacity in more detail. Association with controlling nutritional status CONUT score and in-hospital mortality and infection in acute heart failure.

Participants were eeference at the Clinical Research Facility at Great Ormond Street Hospital at baseline before randomisation by a physician. J Pediatr ; — Abdominal fat correlates with many components of the metabolic syndrome, including elevated fasting glucose and insulin levels, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and inflammatory markers. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Sixth, owing to the short-term follow-up, the causal link between BMI and outcome is unclear. In the s, chronic disease risk was widely attributed to two principal factors: current lifestyle, encapsulating factors such as unhealthy diet, obesity, smoking and physical activity, and genotype [ 31 ].

Circulating and tissue levels of the neutrophil chemotaxin interleukin-8 are elevated in severe flg alcoholic hepatitis, and tissue levels correlate with neutrophil infiltration. Freeman and M. Summary of key findings academic years to and to 2. However weight by itself is a poor indicator of fatness or obesity, and there has never been a corresponding set of reference curves to assess weight for height.

MeSH terms

Is vulnerability to cardiometabolic disease in Indians mediated by abdominal adiposity or higher body adiposity. The thinnest groups have an elevated risk of mortality relative to those within the normal range, after which there is a dose response association with increasing morbidity and mortality. Barlow SE; Expert Committee.

No information on gestational age. Pediatric Annals ; 35 : — In referencs present study, the effect of higher BMI on mortality was inconclusive mainly due to small number of patients with higher BMI. The J-shaped association between BMI and all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality confirms results from previous observational studies [ 2 — 5 ] as well as a mendelian randomization study based on a genetic instrument for BMI [ 45 ].

Table 1: Summary of trends in weight status by age and sex. Search articles by 'T J Cole'. References 1. Body-composition reference data for simple and reference techniques and a 4-component model: a new UK reference child.

Accuracy of BMI

Incex trends in mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer in the United Kingdom, — joinpoint regression analysis. Fig 1. There were no differences in PWV by sex, pubertal stage, smoking or cardiometabolic markers including systolic and diastolic BP. These and other vascular properties affect cardiac load and the regulation of blood pressure, and imply an increased risk of cardiovascular complications.

  • Indeed, obesity manifests as a chronic inflammatory state [ 6667 ].

  • Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat. Interleukin-8 concentrations are elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum, and sera of children with cystic fibrosis.

  • Non-normally distributed continuous variables were transformed for use in univariable regression analysis.

  • Trends in prevalence by weight category, age and sex 4.

  • Ann Nutr Metab.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, View author publications. Show results from All journals This journal. TBW and FFM increased with age in both sexes, but increased faster in males during the first 2 years.

Preece Published Medicine Archives of Disease in Childhood Reference curves for stature and weight in British children have been available for the past 30 tor, and have recently been updated. The slope index of inequality SII for obesity provides an indication of whether existing health inequalities are widening or narrowing. Discussion We present the first body composition reference data using a two-component model over the combined period of infancy and early childhood. Cited by: 9 articles PMID:

What is the body mass index BMI? Affiliations 1 author 1. We present the first body composition reference data using a two-component model over the combined period of infancy and early childhood.

The differences between deciles in the same ucrves will be unaffected by the low participation rate assuming that each decile is affected in the same way. The slope index of inequality SII for obesity provides an indication of whether existing health inequalities are widening or narrowing. In early infancy, though weight gain is slowing, males gain FFM faster than females, who show slightly faster FM accretion. Scientific Reports Introduction 3.

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The body mass index BMI is a measure that referencd your height and weight to work out if your weight is healthy. Thank you for your feedback. Methods Citations. There are two approaches to calculating N, known as the plateau method and the back extrapolation method [ 39 ]. The SII has been increasing at a faster rate in Year 6 than in Reception, illustrated by the steeper slope of the trend lines for Year 6. BMI was calculated from weight and height.

Relation of activity levels to body fat in infants 6 to 12 months curvfs age. IW co-supervised the study and data collection, contributed to the final draft. BMI is a very simple proxy for body composition, and its limitations as an index of adiposity are well established [ 5 ], so why should it be able to index broader patterns of health status and disease risk? Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Step 3 : Set your existing dataset containing height, weight, sex, age and other variables into a temporary dataset, named mydata.

DOI: Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies. Copyright notice.

Minerva Pediatr55 501 Oct Do fat babies stay fat? Thank you for your feedback. Free full text.

  • The development of waist circumference percentiles in british children aged 5. Nuesch E, et al.

  • Preece MA. Methods Measurements of weight, length or height, and TBW were made in several studies of body composition and energy metabolism conducted by our research group in Cambridge and London, UK between and

  • In the present study, the reference points for fruit and vegetables, legumes and nuts, nonrefined or high-fiber grains, fermented dairy products, and fish were the median intakes in the data and are lower-intake thresholds. Previous studies have also demonstrated higher mortality rates in HF patients with a lower BMI 45678.

  • The number of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles. Arch Dis Child.

  • Download PDF. Exp Lung Res.

All other outcomes were fitted with transformed age with zero offset, which also improves the fit even for non-monotonic data. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Email address. Until recently, pediatric body composition reference data were very limited, hindering interpretation of measurements.

Adiposity indices fof children. Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Accuracy of BMI BMI takes into account natural variations in body shape, giving a healthy weight range for a particular height. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. Stat Med. CAS Google Scholar 8.

By using the approach described by Austin [ 43 ], multivariable-adjusted RDs and relative risks RRs rlag calculated from the predicted survival curve based on the Cox model for all-cause mortality. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Data were obtained from the baseline sample of the Healthy Eating and Lifestyle Trial HELP trial, a randomised controlled trial of an adolescent obesity intervention.

Open in a separate window. However weight by itself is a poor indicator of fatness or obesity, and there has never been a corresponding set of reference curves to assess weight for height. Adiposity indices in children. Discussion We present the first body composition reference data using a two-component model over the combined period of infancy and early childhood. The trends in weight category prevalence by ethnic group are restricted to groups with a sample size large enough to achieve meaningful results, therefore the Chinese ethnic group is not shown.

Inequalities are widening in obesity, excess weight, and severe obesity across all age and sex groups with the largest increases seen in the most deprived areas quintile 1however the pattern of change varies between these groups. Cite this article Wells, J. This website requires cookies, and the limited processing of your personal data in order to function. Previously, evaluations of early growth patterns were restricted to anthropometric outcomes, most commonly weight, height and body mass index [ 337 ], but also skinfold thicknesses [ 6 ]. Muscle is much denser than fat, so very muscular people, such as heavyweight boxers, weight trainers and athletes, may be a healthy weight even though their BMI is classed as obese. Possible contributing factors may be varying contributions of breast- vs formula-feeding, or differences in measurement methods eg we used the back extrapolation method in infants, whereas Butte at el used both this and the plateau method.

Introduction

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society ; 66 : — Associations of anthropometric, metabolic risk factors, demographic variables and PWV were investigated using linear regression. Forrest plots for the adjusted hazard ratios of each BMI category for the clinical outcome measures. These associations were attenuated with adjustment for age and adult BMI Mean birth weight 3. Age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy and adiposity at age 3 years.

Davies PS, Lucas A. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. Maybe Yes this page is useful No this page is not useful. Open in a separate window.

Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. This enables trajectories of FM and FFM accretion to be body mass index reference curves for the uk flag over the crucial first thousand days of life, a period when growth is sensitive to diverse ecological stimuli and stresses, and has implications for long-term health. There are known inequalities between weight status and ethnicity. All data were collected in duplicate, and the average value used. View 1 excerpt, cites methods. Centiles for total body water TBW in a boys and b girls, fat-free fat mass FFM in c boys and d girls, and fat mass FM in e boys and f girls measured by deuterium dilution.

BMI ranges

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Thus, in younger age groups BMI remains the most commonly used proxy for adiposity, although its limitations for this role are well established [ 4 ]. For queries relating to this document, please contact: ncmp phe.

However, other proxies can be used in its place. Discussion In our study of adolescents with obesity from a community sample in the UK, we found a positive association between arterial stiffness and adiposity zBMI, FMI including central adiposity in the form of standardised waist circumference. The primary outcome measure for the present analysis was all-cause death after discharge from the index hospitalization. Young candidates for coronary heart disease. Eur Heart J ; 27 — Kappetein, A. British Heart Journal ; 73 : —

Arch Dis Child ; — These BIVs flags e. In contrast, a lean BMI did not offset a poor diet. Acta Paediatrica ; 97 : —

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Inequalities are widening in obesity, excess weight, and severe obesity across all age and sex groups with the largest increases seen in the most deprived areas quintile 1however the body mass index reference curves for the uk flag of change varies between these groups. This statistical approach, widely used to construct reference data for traits that incorporate the effects of growth, provides the following 3 outputs: 1 a smoothed median M or mu curve, which represents how the outcome varies in relation to age, 2 the CV S or sigmawhich models the scatter of values around the mean and adjusts for any non-uniform dispersion, and 3 the skewness L or lambdawhich corresponds to the age-specific Box-Cox transformation needed to achieve a normal distribution. The assessment of growth and development in children. A chart to link child centiles of body mass index, weight and height.

PubMed Google Scholar In Reception boys:. Jonathan C. Muscle is much denser than fat, so very muscular people, such as heavyweight boxers, weight trainers and athletes, may be a healthy weight even though their BMI is classed as obese. J Epidemiol Community Health. Weight-for-height in children aged years.

Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. We extracted data on total body water TBW from multiple studies of infants and children, from which fat-free mass FFM and fat mass FM can be calculated. Total energy expenditure and energy intake in the pre-school child: a comparison. Overall, this indicates that individuals and groups cannot be monitored across the two charts, rather each should be used separately. Br J Nutr. Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. Search articles by 'T J Cole'.

Diabetologia ; 48 : — Future research would be warranted to identify and promote achieving the optimal BMI in individual patients. A large study demonstrated that waist-hip ratio was more successful than BMI at predicting cardiovascular mortality across 52 countries [ 65 ].

Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. Published data of Fomon and colleagues [ 17 ] curves for Butte and colleagues [ 22 ] converted to z-scores using our new reference data, to evaluate differences between studies in a fat-free mass FFMb fat mass FMc fat-free mass index FFMI and d fat mass index FMI. Indices of obesity derived from body weight and height. More generally, the comparisons with previously published data indicate substantial population variability in body composition in early life. ChristensenPer AshornKim F. Preece Published Medicine Archives of Disease in Childhood Reference curves for stature and weight in British children have been available for the past 30 years, and have recently been updated.

Trends in body mass index in young adults in England and Scotland from to Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants: reference data obtained by air-displacement plethysmography. Normative dual energy X-ray absorptiometry data in Swedish children and adolescents. We suggest that this is partly because older children have had longer exposure to obesogenic factors than younger children; and partly because the older children were measured more recently and have consistently experienced an overall more obesogenic environment. The number of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives. Cited by: 14 articles PMID:

Am J Clin Nutr. About this article. Body Mass Index variations: centiles from birth to 87 years. All other outcomes were fitted with transformed age with zero offset, which also improves the fit even for non-monotonic data.

Nuesch E, et al. It is well established, for example, that body composition reflects the influences of genotype and gene expression [ 12 — 15 ]. We conducted a stratified analysis by sex with all-cause mortality as outcome. Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age Direct measurements of body fat and body shape could overcome some of these limitations, especially as the regional distribution of body fat also differs between ethnic groups. Eur J Clin Nutr.

Yin, J. Figure 1. Barker DJ, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children. Circulation ; : —

BMI was calculated index reference weight and height. Energy content of stools in normal healthy controls and patients with cystic fibrosis. Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, Centiles of body mass index for Dutch children aged years in a baseline to assess recent trends in obesity. Possible contributing factors may be varying contributions of breast- vs formula-feeding, or differences in measurement methods eg we used the back extrapolation method in infants, whereas Butte at el used both this and the plateau method. Use of the charts in clinical practice is aided by the provision of nine centiles, where the two extremes identify the fattest and thinnest four per of the population.

Objectives To provide reference data for use in clinical practice and research from 6 weeks to 5 years, that are based on measurements of flav body water TBW by isotope dilution. However, the centiles do not overlap exactly with those published for older age groups, limiting comparability between younger and older children. Google Scholar Similar Articles To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.

In addition, where patients may have dehydration, or over-hydration from edema, measurements of TBW mazs remain difficult to interpret. Data between to and to for Year 6 is included in this analysis as the SII looks at the difference in prevalence between deprivation deciles in the same year, rather than changes in prevalence levels across years. Centiles of body mass index for Dutch children aged years in a baseline to assess recent trends in obesity. These include skinfolds [ 18 ], DXA [ 19 ], air-displacement plethysmography adapted for infants the Peapod R [ 2021 ], and a multi-component model [ 22 ]. Energy content of stools in normal healthy controls and patients with cystic fibrosis. Accepted : 02 January Google Scholar

Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass. J Am Coll Cardiol ; 63 — Footnotes Contributors: LH produced the first cutves of the paper, co-conceived the study and collected the data. In a large, multi-ethnic and socioeconomically variable sample followed over 4 years, these authors showed inverse associations between grip strength and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke.

Li Y, et al. Mortality was much greater in those with high waist girth but vlag BMI, compared with those with high BMI but low waist girth. Hypertension ; 41 : — Impact of body mass index on the prognosis of Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Conclusions In our sample, increasing adiposity was positively associated with arterial stiffness, however partitioning by severity was not reliable.

Subjects born preterm had significantly narrower aortic lumen after adjustment for confounders. Despite these differences, the prognostic influence of low BMI was observed across studies worldwide. Step 3 : Set your existing dataset containing height, weight, sex, age and other variables into a temporary dataset, named mydata.

  • Meta-analysis of 19 studies Pooled-gender results calculated for 13 studies with sufficient data. BMI has been consistently associated with health and longevity in large populations, typically demonstrating a J shaped relationship [ 5253 ].

  • Moreover, raw BIA data are converted to final body composition values using prediction equations that should ideally be generated in the study population, or obtained from studies on similar populations.

  • Article Google Scholar Ischaemic heart disease is among the top four causes of death in every global region except Oceania and sub-Saharan Africa, and stroke is also one of the commonest causes of death in many regions.

  • Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Association between mode of delivery and body mass index at years in White British and Pakistani children: the Born in Bradford birth cohort.

  • A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity. Accessed May 26

Diabetes ; refeeence : — These BIVs can be used to flag potentially problematic data points, and the cut-points were chosen to balance the inclusion of extreme values that are likely to be correct and the exclusion of those that are likely to be incorrect. Fig 2. Arterial stiffening precedes systolic hypertension in diet-induced obesity.

Strictures of ascending teference in cystic fibrosis and high-strength pancreatic enzymes. Figure 1 shows the prevalence of obesity, excess weight and severe obesity by school year and sex. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, Trends in overweight prevalence need to be examined in the context of changes in prevalence of healthy weight and obesity.

Methodology and further information Print this page. Associations of diarised sleep onset time, period and ucrves with total and central adiposity in a biethnic sample of young children: the Born in Bradford observational cohort study. Association between mode of delivery and body mass index at years in White British and Pakistani children: the Born in Bradford birth cohort. Body composition during the first 2 years of life: an updated reference.

From the late s a new perspective emerged, as studies repeatedly demonstrated that patterns of body mass index reference curves for the uk flag in early life also shaped chronic disease risk in adulthood. In this large, population-based cohort analysis of middle-aged and older men and women, obese individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet did not experience the increased overall mortality otherwise associated with high BMI, although a higher CVD mortality remained. The results from this longitudinal cohort study indicate that for both women and men during the last decades of life, diet can modify the association of a higher BMI with mortality; obese individuals adhering to a Mediterranean diet did not have an increased mortality in comparison to more lean individuals. Is birth weight related to later glucose and insulin metabolism? The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

Pediatr Res. As well as measuring your BMI, healthcare professionals may take other factors into account when assessing if you're a healthy weight. Obesity Physiological Sexual Disorders. As shown in Fig.

The challenge is that by seeking so many individual sources of information, we struggle to make sense of the complexity. For example, a clustered z -score the average of several raw z-scores, as already used for the assessment of metabolic risk in children [ ] may be calculated based on raw data for these variables. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature.

Body Mass Index variations: centiles from birth to 87 years. Revised standards reeference triceps and subscapular skinfolds in British children. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. Figure 4d shows prevalence by weight category for girls in Year 6 by recorded ethnic group. Body fat reference curves for children. For children and young people aged 2 to 18, the BMI calculation takes into account age and gender as well as height and weight. Received : 23 June

Both exposures were initially treated as continuous variables. Vaz, M. Thinness at birth and insulin resistance in adult life. Show results from All journals This journal. The thrifty phenotype: an adaptation in growth or metabolism? Low birth weight was associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber a marker of hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk among individuals aged 51—72 years [ 83 ].

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