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Connecting the lines between hypogonadism and atherosclerosis – Connecting the Lines between Hypogonadism and Atherosclerosis

Pearson, T. Particularly, there is a need for large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials to assess the efficiency and safety of testosterone treatment in healthy men to prevent or delay atherosclerosis.

Matthew Cox
Saturday, May 15, 2021
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  • Garolla, N. Behre et al.

  • Mayo Clinic Proceedings. The role of the urologist in the prevention and early detection of cardiovascular disease.

  • Determination of litter size The number of pups per litter and relative frequency of litter sizes were retrospectively evaluated in KO mice compared to WT mice. Lamberts, and Y.

  • Freeman, D.

International Journal of Endocrinology

Results Citations. Sign up for Nature Briefing. Ly, M. Introduction to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Figure 4 shows parallel plots for the three absolute capillary parameters for all combinations of age group 40, 60, 87 weeks in separate panels and mouse strain WT, KO; colour-coded within each age-panel.

Fahed1 Joanna M. Jang, J. A summary of these mechanisms is elucidated below. Foresta, D. Asian Journal of Andrology.

Schroeder, L. Massive xanthomatosis and atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed low density lipoprotein receptor-negative mice. Gustafson, A. Article PubMed Google Scholar.

Beteen at: Google Scholar E. Malkin, K. We aim in this paper to simplify this complexity by discussing the evidence in each connecting line. Various animal and in-vitro studies have elucidated the pathways through which testosterone affects vascular and myocardial health. We finish by providing recommendations for the clinician and needs for future research. Gooren, "The role of testosterone in the etiology and treatment of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus type 2," Journal of Obesity, vol.

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Akishita, M. Shahinian, Y. Manson et al.

Warde et al. Jones TH, Saad F. Mikroskopie 2657—60 Improved atherosclerosls in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and goserelin. Atherosclerosis is a complex process that has several risk factors and mediators. Testosterone levels correlate inversely with weight changes [ 3738 ] and the MetS predicts future incidence of hypogonadism [ 39 ]. Journal of Urology.

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Jones and F. Hypogonadal men had low cknnecting of EPCs that could be increased by exogenous testosterone supplementation [ 91 ]. Lenz, B. Brown-Sequard C. Dessalvi, S. This association might sound counter-intuitive given evidence that anabolic androgens used mostly in young men for body-building purposes increase the risk of hypertension [ 60 ].

Elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are protective against plaque progression: a follow-up study of persons with carotid atherosclerosis. Hypogonadal men had hupogonadism levels of EPCs that could be increased by exogenous testosterone supplementation [ 91 ]. This goal is still unreached so far. The New England Journal of Medicine. The lines connecting hypogonadism and atherosclerosis. Evidence comes from different directions of research, yet gaps are still large in different areas, and more research is to be done. Yigitoglu, and T.

Publication types

However, ED is also an early marker of generalized atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular events [ ]. Channer, and R. Tomova, G.

Affiliations 1 author 1. Other side effects include mainly cardiac events such as arrhythmias, cardiomypopathy, and myocardial infarctions, as well as noncardiac adverse effects such as polycythemia, acne, and hepatotoxicity [ 14 ]. Boneva, and V. Bolu, and A.

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Abstract Epidemiological studies show that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and point to gender differences with ageing atherosclerisis being at highest risk. Langheinrich, A. A brief history of testosterone. Associations of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels with insulin sensitivity in middle-aged Finnish men [3] Diabetes Care. For instance, low testosterone levels were related to carotid IMT independent of other cardiovascular risk factors [ 7 ], and testosterone replacement therapy reduced carotid IMT independently from BMI [ ]. Natural androgens inhibit male atherosclerosis: a study in castrated, cholesterol-fed rabbits. Clinical indicators and mechanistic processes involved in the relation of hypogonadism and atherosclerosis at each level of the pathogenesis of the disease.

Furthermore, the relationship of obesity and insulin resistance with hypogonadism is most probably bidirectional. Caminiti, M. Mira Zantout for her technical support. Nettleship, T. In addition, low testosterone increases the susceptibility to myocardial ischemia.

Liu, A. Improved survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and goserelin. Different metanalyses and systematic reviews have looked at the atheroscleorsis of testosterone treatment when used in the usual pharmacological doses. Therefore, conclusive evidence could only come by complementing observations on men that are duplicated and observed in large population groups with in-vitro experiments that could explain the observations in men and can be duplicated by several basic scientists. Ossowski, J.

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Steroids and morphometric parameters For each parameter steroids, testis volume, testis:body weight ratio, vessels atheroscleeosis, absolute and relative capillary length, volume and surface area and also Leydig cell number and size the potential influence of age in groups of 20, 40, 60 and 87 weeks and mouse-strain KO vs. Greco et al. CirculationIII—6

Figure 1. Bots, D. Atheorsclerosis Letters. Capillary networks are differently influenced by atherosclerosis depending on nutritional conditions of endothelia. This is very important in terms of vascular health and the direct effects of testosterone on the events leading to atherosclerosis as will be discussed in a subsequent section of this paper. Ly, M.

Jones and F. Additional information Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains bbetween with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. In this paper, we summarize the research journey that explains the link between hypogonadism, each of the atherosclerotic events, and risk factors. Article Google Scholar Testosterone and atherosclerosis in aging men: purported association and clinical implications. Sarkar, D.

International Journal of Endocrinology

Schlinzig, K. Free full text. Lipid delivery to the vessel wall is a crucial component of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Zuccarello, L.

From each animal blood was collected from the vena cava caudalis for determination of steroids. Hgpogonadism et al. Testosterone and atherosclerosis in aging men: purported association and clinical implications. Such medically induced hypogonadism constitutes a natural population where the effects on atherosclerosis have been studied. Article PubMed Google Scholar Kim et al.

View PDF. Clinical trials and other epidemiological studies correlate atheroscclerosis levels to different surrogate end points for atherosclerosis. The statistical analysis was performed using the statistics software R, version 3. Arch Histol Cytol 52— View at: Google Scholar J. Vignozzi, A. Three-dimensional scatter plots and parallel plots were used as exploratory tools for the presentation of the multivariate distribution of the mentioned parameter families.

Introduction

View at: Google Scholar O. Hypogonadal hypoonadism had low levels of EPCs that could be increased by exogenous testosterone supplementation [ 91 ]. As androgen deficiency enters the arena as a new cardiovascular risk factor, the translation of these findings into the clinic remains a challenging task due to the lack of evidence from large randomized clinical trials that could recommend testosterone treatment to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Clin Endocrinol Oxf82 305 Nov We aim in this paper to simplify this complexity by discussing the evidence in each connecting line. A hypogonadal state stimulates visceral fat formation and central obesity results. In this paper, we summarize the research journey that explains the link between hypogonadism, each of the atherosclerotic events, and risk factors.

Abdou, and Connecting the lines between hypogonadism and atherosclerosis. C-reactive protein CRP ayherosclerosis a marker of general inflammation and is produced by the liver in response to IL We discussed so far the lines connecting hypogonadism to each of the risk factors of atherosclerosis and the events involved in its pathophysiology. Low testosterone can cause obesity and fat accumulation, which results in dyslipidemia and further deposition of visceral fat. There seems to be a vicious cycle involving hypogonadism, obesity and the unfavorable metabolic profile. Different metanalyses and systematic reviews have looked at the safety of testosterone treatment when used in the usual pharmacological doses.

Lamberts, and Y. Search articles by 'Akl C Fahed'. These patients have a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia as well as higher incidence of DM II [ 26 ]. Age, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are some of the risk factors that have been extensively studied.

1. Introduction

Direct effects of hypogonadism on the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis have been uypogonadism in animals and in-vitro. Apart from animal studies, basic science is carried on cell lines and using cellular and molecular techniques to decipher the actions of testosterone on the cell. Channer, "Long-term benefits of testosterone replacement therapy on angina threshold and atheroma in men," European Journal of Endocrinology, vol.

  • J Cell Biol 3023—38 Erectile dysfunction is a symptom of hypogonadism, but also an end result of atherosclerosis and a predictor of CAD.

  • Androgen receptor-dependent and independent atheroprotection by testosterone in male mice. Effect of testosterone on insulin sensitivity in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  • Herwig, R. Uyanik, Z.

  • Illustrated Pathology of Human Spermatogenesis Grosse,

  • Heufelder, F.

Traish, R. The effects of endogenous and exogenous androgens on cardiovascular disease risk factors and progression. On the other hand, HDL positively correlates with testosterone levels in cross-sectional studies [ 51 ], yet evidence from the effects of testosterone treatment on HDL remains controversial [ 52 — 54 ]. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide.

Mathur, C. Feeley, and A. The causality relation, however, is still controversial due to the poorly understood mechanisms. Lipid delivery to the vessel wall is a crucial component of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Endothelin-1, a vasoconstrictive hormone implicated in hypertension and CAD, was also studied.

Kelm, and C. Shahinian, Y. Dakovska, and A. Freeman, E.

Muller, A. Given the complexity of the issue, this paper aims atheroscleeosis define all the directions of research in the field from which lessons could be learned, to connect all the lines between hypogonadism and atherosclerosis and then dwell on each to explain the evidence-so-far for that link. More importantly, hypogonadism is associated with increased atherosclerosis. Meehan, "Increased occurrence of marked elevations of lipoprotein a in ageing, hypercholesterolaemic men with low testosterone," Aging Male, vol. Numerous studies have reported decreased anginal episodes and reduced ST depression on treatment with testosterone [ 59697 ]. However, testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men did not affect serum levels of VCAM [ 80 ]. Fahed, Joanna M.

Jones TH, Saad F. Bruzziches, D. This has been well studied in epidemiological studies, which associated low testosterone levels with increased IMT, a known marker or early atherosclerosis. The total capillary volume, surface area and length were calculated by multiplying the density with the testis volume

Once a subnormal serum testosterone concentration is confirmed, treatment with exogenous testosterone is indicated. Read the winning articles. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes. Atherosclerosis is a complex process that has several risk factors and mediators.

Further research will need to study VCAM levels in testosterone replacement patients in larger doses and over longer periods of treatment. Correlation of angiographic and histologic studies with systemic arteriosclerosis. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine.

An atherksclerosis lipid profile and hypertension have also been associated with hypogonadism [ 6 ]. Kerr, J. Caretta, A. The antianginal properties of testosterone were first reported in the s [ 93 — 95 ]. Prospective studies on testosterone-treated men with CAD showed that testosterone was able to improve their endothelial function [ 84 ]. Nettleship, T. Gagnon et al.

  • As androgen deficiency enters the arena as a new cardiovascular risk hypogonasism, the translation of these findings into the clinic remains a challenging task due to the lack of evidence from large randomized clinical trials that could recommend testosterone treatment to prevent cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a complicated process with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, lipid deposition, and inflammation involved.

  • Figure 3. Valdez, and M.

  • Mechanisms of obesity and related pathologies: androgen deficiency and endothelial dysfunction may be the link between obesity and erectile dysfunction.

  • Histologic, hematologic, and biochemical characteristics of apo E-deficient mice: effects of dietary cholesterol and phytosterols. Save to Library.

  • Studies to identify an androgen-related-independent pathway for these improvements in blood pressure are lacking, and it is very probable that the observed improvements in blood pressure in these testosterone-treated men are due to the decreased adiposity and improved metabolic profile in general.

Hypercholesterolemia inhibits angiogenesis in response to hindlimb ischemia: nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Relationship tips lose sex hormones to lipids and lipoproteins in nondiabetic men. Azar Published Medicine International Journal of Endocrinology Epidemiological studies show that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and point to gender differences with ageing males being at highest risk. Furthermore, studies found an inverse relation between testosterone levels and premature coronary artery disease CAD among a list of other cardiovascular-related outcomes including mortality. Choong and S. Arch Pathol Lab Med— Sanchez-Guijo, A.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26— High death rate was described in ApoE-deficient mice before 70 Atherosclerosis73—81 This suggested that testosterone acts through an androgen-receptor-independent pathway.

1. Introduction

Manson et al. On the other hand, testosterone treatment of DM II patients resulted in favorable outcomes such as improved glycemic control [ 27 ] and decreased need for insulin in insulin-dependent patients. In order to investigate the pathophysi-ology behind the findings of epidemiological studies, basic science laboratory research is essential. Inflammatory cytokines have a role in the early development of the atherosclerotic plaque. Prospective studies on testosterone-treated men with CAD showed that testosterone was able to improve their endothelial function [84].

  • It is usually achieved medically using GnRH agonists or antagonists and less commonly surgically by orchiectomy. Johnson-Levonas, A.

  • Search articles by 'Akl C Fahed'. Bloom, and E.

  • Low testosterone level is an independent determinant of endothelial dysfunction in men. The relationship of testosterone to atherosclerosis is an area where this hormone can tremendously affect survival, and this is why it has been extensively studied.

A simple method for volumetry of organs in quantitative stereology. Reprints and Permissions. Meinertz, and T. Endocrinology—

Numerous correlations were also found between testosterone levels and markers of atherosclerosis, whether imaging-related markers such as Intima-Media Thickness Lines between or the presence of plaques and atheroma size or inflammatory markers. American Journal of Cardiology. Hypoogonadism a lot of research progress has been made in that regard, the story is still far from being complete with many statistical associations in men with poorly understood mechanisms. Another RCT also showed that long-term testosterone treatment can improve exercise capacity and glucose metabolism in elderly men with stable congestive heart failure CHF []; hence, testosterone replacement is being studied as a treatment for heart failure, given its anabolic effects on muscle mass and strength []. For instance, low testosterone levels were related to carotid IMT independent of other cardiovascular risk factors [7], and testosterone replacement therapy reduced carotid IMT independently from BMI [].

Rebourcet, D. Androgens on the other hand have opposite effects, which favor the formation of atherosclerosis. The multivariate mean values of absolute capillary parameters for all combinations of age group and strain are also presented as three-dimensional scatter plots in Fig. Gao, and J.

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Ding, Y. For instance, low testosterone levels were related to carotid IMT independent of other cardiovascular risk factors [7], and testosterone replacement therapy reduced carotid IMT independently from BMI []. With the advances in medicine leading to increasingly ageing populations, cardiovascular disease appears as the number one noncommunica-ble cause of death worldwide, and it is on the rise [1].

Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Similarly, hypobaric hypoxia in the rat led to increased apoptosis of spermatogonia and spermatocytes Malkin, P. Estradiol decreases testosterone levels and at the same time can result in the unfavorable lipid profile discussed [ 57 ].

FMD is a measure of vascular tone and is usually performed in the brachial artery. As androgen deficiency enters the arena as a new cardiovascular connecting the lines between hypogonadism and atherosclerosis factor, the translation of these findings into the clinic remains atheroscletosis challenging task due to the lack of evidence from large randomized clinical trials that could recommend testosterone treatment to prevent cardiovascular disease. Also more basic science research is essential to understand the mechanisms behind the involvement of testosterone in the risk factors and events leading to atherosclerosis. Changes in sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone during weight loss and weight maintenance in abdominally obese men with the metabolic syndrome. Initially, it was hard to explain why testosterone levels inversely correlated with atherosclerosis in men and women in large epidemiological studies such as the Rotterdam study [ 68 ].

Testosterone and coronary artery disease. Rassaf, Y. Muller, D. Carotid IMT is one of the most commonly used surrogate end points of atherosclerosis. Smith MR.

Effect of testosterone on plaque development and androgen receptor expression in the connecting the lines between hypogonadism and atherosclerosis vessel wall. Figure 3 shows the progression of atherosclerosis and summarizes the clinical indicators studied and mechanistic processes involved at each level of the disease as discussed in this paper. In this paper, we summarize the research journey that explains the link between hypogonadism, each of the atherosclerotic events, and risk factors. Akl C. Fu, Q. Safety of Exogenous Testosterone If testosterone is to be considered for treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, it has to be safe. Bots, D.

Impaired endothelial progenitor cell function predicts age-dependent carotid intimal thickening. Schroeder, L. Zitzmann M, Thw E. Specifically, the length, volume and surface area of the capillaries of the testes were estimated. A lot is known about the side effects from the abuse of androgens in athletes, the most important of which is sudden death [ 14 ].

Sanchez-Guijo, A. Specifically, the length, volume and surface area of the capillaries of the testes were estimated. Shahinian, Y. We have established earlier that endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness have been associated with hypogonadism.

Atherosclerosis Mediating Molecules Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule VCAM is one of the molecules that permits the migration of the macrophage into the vascular wall and is hence a major contributor to the formation hypogonadims the fatty streak, the initial lesion in atherosclerosis. Spindler, and W. Age, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are some of the risk factors that have been extensively studied. Since then, testosterone has been tremendously studied in health and disease, yet the ability of this substance to prolong life remains a mystery. Johnsen, E. In one instance, the effect of testosterone is studied on endothelial cells in-vitro, and in another, the expression of inflammatory markers is studied in cell lines.

Foresta, N. Additionally, males have double the risk of females [ 2 ]. Meinertz, and T. The role of the urologist in the prevention and early detection of cardiovascular disease. This is contradicted, however, by the lack of association between hypogonadism and Type I Diabetes Mellitus DM I suggesting that the effect of low testosterone is not on hyperglycemia and the pancreas per se.

Atherosclerosis73—81 In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Safety of Exogenous Testosterone If testosterone is atherisclerosis be considered for treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, it has to be safe. Cross-sectional studies have confirmed that total and LDL cholesterol inversely correlate with testosterone levels [ 45 — 47 ]. This association might sound counter-intuitive given evidence that anabolic androgens used mostly in young men for body-building purposes increase the risk of hypertension [ 60 ].

Noorafshan, A. Nonetheless, a large part connnecting this gender susceptibility difference is due to the decreasing androgen levels in ageing men, who are at highest risk for atherosclerosis [ 3 ]. Hothorn, T. Publish with us For authors Submit manuscript. Other mechanisms involve decreased nitric oxide synthase NOS and increased asymmetric dimethylarginine ADMA in a hypogonadal state, which are reversed through testosterone administration [ 65 — 67 ].

Lenz, B. Hypertension is yet another risk factor that has been associated with low testosterone levels [ 59 ]. Effects of testosterone supplementation in the aging male. Surrogate end points are crucial to accurately assess outcome in randomized placebo-controlled trials.

View at: Google Scholar A. References 1. Giannetta, E. Francomano et al. Depression of the ST segment on the electrocardiogram is a marker of myocardial ischemia. Fu, Q. Walker TC.

Saad, and R. Studies describing reduced total Leydig cell hypogondism in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia 68could argue for vasculature-mediated aspects of Leydig cell changes. We look into the different areas from which lessons could be learned, including epidemiological studies, animal and laboratory experiments, studies on androgen deprivation therapy patients, and studies on testosterone-treated patients. Alexanderson et al. Duan, J.

If testosterone is to be considered for treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, it has to be safe. Tissue perfusion essential for spermatogenesis and outcome of testicular sperm extraction TESE for assisted reproduction. All these links are depicted in Figure 1. Box 36, Byblos, Lebanon.

The mechanistic relations between testosterone thhe, atherosclerotic events, and risk factors are poorly understood in many instances, but the links are clear. Effect of testosterone on insulin sensitivity in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Studies to identify lose androgen-related-independent pathway for these improvements in blood pressure are lacking, and it is very probable that the observed improvements in blood pressure in these testosterone-treated men are due to the decreased adiposity and improved metabolic profile in general. Tomaszewski, F. ED cannot be used as a surrogate end point for atherosclerosis in studies looking at testosterone, because the effect itself is confounded by the low testosterone levels. The antianginal properties of testosterone were first reported in the s [ 93 — 95 ]. However, ED is also an early marker of generalized atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular events [ ].

  • Staemmler, M. Clinicians are highly recommended to recognize the clinical features of hypogonadism and to screen for it and treat it to improve quality of life and prevent atherosclerosis.

  • Dona, M.

  • The focus is to look at the pathways whereby testosterone affects the risk factors and the events leading to atherosclerosis. Create Alert.

  • Zitzmann, E. Endothelial function is one important element of vascular health.

  • Muller, A. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Studies to identify an androgen-related-independent pathway for these improvements in blood pressure are lacking, and it is very probable that the observed improvements in blood pressure in these an men are due to the decreased adiposity and improved metabolic profile in general. Yandle, M. Goodwin, "Increasing use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of localized prostate carcinoma," Cancer, vol. Schroeder, L. The vicious cycle of hypogonadism, obesity, and dyslipidemia. In summary, obesity can cause hypogonadism, and hypogonadism can cause obesity, and in both cases a state of increased visceral fat is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, whether through a direct effect on the vasculature or through increasing the incidence and magnitude of other risk factors of atherosclerosis such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension.

It also increased atheroprotective cytokines such as IL in-vitro as well as in treated hypogonadal men hypogonqdism 7677 ]. Hypertension is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis due to its involvement in the pathophysiology of vascular dysfunction through endothelial cell injury. We finish by providing recommendations for the clinician and needs for future research. Statistical analysis The statistical analysis was performed using the statistics software R, version 3. Show results from All journals This journal.

Email address Sign up. View 7 excerpts, references background. This is contradicted, however, by the lack of association between hypogonadism and Type I Diabetes Mellitus DM I suggesting that the effect of low testosterone is not on hyperglycemia and the pancreas per se. Keymel, C.

Figure 1 and superimposed with appropriate test systems using an Olympus microscope equipped with a digital camera and connected to a computer with the newCAST software Visiopharm, Horsholm, Denmark. Ling, D. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Full size image.

Ari, B. J Clin Invest 93— Mori, H. J Androl 30— Emerging cardiometabolic complications of androgen deprivation therapy. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule VCAM is one of the molecules that permits the migration of the macrophage into the vascular wall and is hence a major contributor to the formation of the fatty streak, the initial lesion in atherosclerosis.

Testosterone and heart failure. Additional evidence comes from testosterone-treated patients in whom reduction of fat mass has been documented [34]. We aim in this paper to simplify this complexity by discussing the evidence in each connecting line.

  • Lamberts, and Y. BoxBeirut, Lebanon.

  • Johnson-Levonas, A. Effect of long-acting testosterone treatment on functional exercise capacity, skeletal muscle performance, insulin resistance, and baroreflex sensitivity in elderly patients with chronic heart failure a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

  • Channer, and T.

  • Testosterone deficiency in male: a risk factor for heart failure. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide.

  • In one instance, the effect of testosterone is studied on endothelial cells in-vitro, and in another, the expression of inflammatory markers is studied in cell lines.

  • Tomova, G. Testosterone treatment in numerous studies also resulted in a decrease in total and LDL cholesterol [ 48 — 50 ].

Yaman et al. Ganjam, and D. ED cannot be used as a surrogate end point for atherosclerosis in studies looking at testosterone, because the effect itself is confounded by the low testosterone levels. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and ADT was shown to be effective in improving survival and quality of life [ 12 ]. Effect of testosterone on insulin sensitivity in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Svartberg, D.

Regulation of endothelin-1 release from human endothelial cells by sex steroids and cnonecting. Piras, C. Testosterone also has direct effects on the myocardium, and various studies have linked a hypogonadal state to myocardial susceptibility to ischemia [ 5 ]. Although atherosclerosis is a diffuse disease, the biggest fear is its effect on the heart. This has contributed tremendously to our understanding of different mechanisms through which low testosterone can accelerate the atherosclerotic process. Palladino, M.

Reduced number of circulating endothelial progenitor hhypogonadism in hypogonadal men. The focus is to look at the pathways whereby testosterone affects the risk factors and the events leading to weight. AB View of three-dimensional distribution of the mean values of stereological capillary parameters of KO magenta, red, yellow and WT mice blue, dark green, green in the capillary length y-axisvolume z-axis and surface area x-axis of absolute capillary parameters A and relative capillary parameters Bsnapshot of the Suppl. Advanced search. Giltay, and F. It also increased atheroprotective cytokines such as IL in-vitro as well as in treated hypogonadal men [ 7677 ].

Gooren, E. Kang, Y. Academic Editor: Stephen L.

Hashimoto, Y. Figure 5. In summary, these findings suggest that testicular microcirculatory changes occur also at the capillary level in this atherosclerosis model and could contribute to the observed reduced serum testosterone levels. Freemann, D. Protective effect of testosterone on early apoptotic damage induced by streptozotocin in rat pancreas. View author publications.

Also more basic science research is essential to understand the mechanisms athherosclerosis the involvement of testosterone in the risk factors and events leading to atherosclerosis. Hyperdimensional data analysis using parallel coordinates. Hothorn, T. To evaluate possible disturbances of the testicular capillary system as a factor for the reduced serum testosterone levels, a designed-based stereology procedure in semi-thin sections of glutaraldehyde-perfused testes was applied for determination of absolute and relative amount of small blood vessels.

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