Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Five different types of mass movement – 10 Mass Wasting

These movements are very common in humid climatic regions and occur over gentle to. Oh yes!

Matthew Cox
Sunday, May 16, 2021
Advertisement
  • Changes in Hydrologic Characteristics - heavy rains can saturate regolith reducing grain to grain contact and reducing the angle of repose, thus triggering a mass movement. Area of extended continental lithosphere, forming a depression.

  • The slippery zone is often made up of wet sediment. Figure 3.

  • Dry unconsolidated grains will form a pile with a slope angle determined by the angle of repose. In these cases, humans should avoid these areas or use them for purposes that will not increase susceptibility of lives or property to mass movement hazards.

  • Sometimes as one rock falls, it hits another rock, which hits another rock, and begins a landslide.

Mass movements

The landslide difterent 40 homes and killed 43 people in the Steelhead Haven community near Oso, Washington. Geotechnical engineering. The California coastline, with its steep cliffs and years of drought punctuated by seasons of abundant rainfall, is prone to landslides. Mass movement hazards from volcanic eruptions can be predicted with the same degree of certainty that volcanic eruptions can be predicted, but again, the threat has to be realized and warnings need to be heeded.

  • Vegetation holds soil in place and slows the influx of water.

  • What are two examples of slow mass movement?

  • Oversteepened slopes could be graded to reduce the slope to the natural angle of repose. The steeper the slope, the faster the creep.

  • Curves in tree trunks indicate creep because the base of the tree is moving downslope while the top is trying to grow straight up figure 8.

  • Mass wasting is the movement of rock and soil down slope under the influence of gravity. Mostly Coarse-Grained.

The upper surface of each slump block remains relatively movemeht, as do the individual blocks. Foliation Planes - Foliation in metamorphic rocks is mainly caused by the alignment of sheet silicate minerals. Skip to content The Thistle landslide foreground dammed the Spanish Fork River creating a lake that covered the town of Thistle, Utah. Slumps leave arcuate scars or depressions on the hill slope.

Module Mass Movement. This landslide was likely the result of material released from the side of a growing laccolith a type of igneous intrusion see Chapter 4after being triggered by five different types of mass movement eruption-related earthquake. Mass Movement Processes The down-slope movement of material, whether it be bedrock, regolith, or a mixture of these, is commonly referred to as a landslide. Rotational slide: This is a slide in which the surface of rupture is curved concavely upward and the slide movement is roughly rotational about an axis that is parallel to the ground surface and transverse across the slide figure 2a. Figure 8. In the figure, the force vectors change as the slope angle increases.

Mass movements

What types the most dangerous type of mass movement? To be the provider of geoscience data globally Navigation Main content Bottom links. Gravity causes all the types of mass movement.

Soil creep refers to the slow downward movement of weathered materials or soil materials down a gentle slope. Moement — In the absence five different types of mass movement vegetation cover and with heavy rainfall, thick layers of weathered materials get saturated with water and either slowly or rapidly flow down along definite channels. Gravity causes all types of mass movement. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.

In mountain valleys subject to mudflows, plans could be made to rapidly lower levels of water in human-made reservoirs to catch mass movement trap the mudflows. Removal of tress and vegetation either by humans or by a forest fire, often results in slope failures in the next rainy season. Similarly, loose unconsolidated sand has no cohesive strength. Saturated water, however, eases the process of mass wasting in that the rock and soil debris are easily washed down-slope. Water has the ability to change the angle of repose the slope angle which is the stable angle for the slope. Coarser grained and angular particles have a steeper angle of repose than fine grained and rounded particles. Avalanche An avalanche occurs when a mass of rock or ice falls or slides suddenly under the force of gravity.

Navigation menu

In particular, if the main feature of the movement is five different types of mass movement slide along a planar or curved surface, the landslide is termed slumpearth slide, debris slide or rock slide, depending on the prevailing material. Rocks separate along existing natural breaks such as fractures or bedding planes. Figure 2. Detailed local maps can usually be obtained from individual state agencies. Mass-wasting events are classified by type of movement and type of material, and there are several ways to classify these events.

Oversteepened slopes could rypes graded to reduce the slope to the natural angle of repose. Although water is not always directly involved as the transporting medium in mass movement processes, it does play an important role. Slope destabilization and undercutting triggered events require constant monitoring. Landslides can even bury entire villages. A block slide is a translational slide in which the moving mass consists of a single unit or a few closely related units that move downslope as a relatively coherent mass figure 2c. Slope stability is determined by two factors: the angle of the slope and the shear strength of the accumulated materials.

When large amounts of rock suddenly break loose from a cliff or mountainside, they move quickly and with tremendous force figure 3. Fossils and dinosaurs. You can't see creep happening but leaning fences and poles and broken retaining walls show where it has taken place. Mudflows follow river channels, washing out bridges, trees, and homes that are in their path. Gravity places its force on all materials, both bedrock and the products of weathering.

Drains are used to dewater landslides and shallow wells are used to monitor the water content of some active landslides. Thornberry-Ehrlich, Colorado State University. Drainage pipes could be inserted into the slope to more easily allow water to get out and avoid increases in fluid pressure, the possibility of liquefaction, or increased weight due to the addition of water. So long as the material remains on the flat surface it will not move under the force of gravity.

Identify and describe types of mass movement.

This caused disastrous flooding upstream in the Soldier Creek and Thistle Creek valleys, submerging the town of Thistle. Radar systems maintained by the mine Place where material is extracted from the Earth for human use. Types of Mass Movement Identify and describe types of mass movement.

Five different types of mass movement in Cold Climates. Mass Movement Processes. Sediment flows occur when sufficient force is applied to rocks and regolith that they begin to flow down slope. Tilting or cracking of concrete floors and foundations. If too much water is present the water may act to increase the pore pressure, reducing friction, and accelerating the erosion process and resulting in different types of mass wasting i. Translational slide: In this type of slide, the landslide mass moves along a roughly planar surface with little rotation or backward tilting figure 2b.

Slopes can be made excessively steep by natural processes of erosion or when humans modify the thpes for building construction. Mostly Fine-Grained. Mass-Movements in Cold Climates Mass movements in cold climates is governed by the fact that water is frozen as ice during long periods of the year. Mass wasting occurs when a slope is too steep to remain stable with existing material and conditions. Sensitive Soils - In some soils the clay minerals are arranged in random fashion, with much pore space between the individual grains. At that angle, the base and height of the pile continue to increase, but the angle of the sides remains the same. If a landslide flows into a lake or bay, they can trigger a tsunami figure 4.

Find more answers. Mass Movement is the movement caused by gravity of surface material. Landslides are sudden falls of rock, whereas avalanches are sudden falls of snow. Search for:.

Add your answer:

Nelson Mass Movements. In the case of the Hebgen Lake rock slide, Madison Canyon, Montana, the shear strength of the slope differeng have been weakened by earthquake shaking. The earthquake caused a rock avalanche that dammed the Madison Rivercreating Quake Lake, and ran up the other side of the valley hundreds of vertical feet. Mass movements also occur on slopes in the ocean basins.

  • During the freeze, expansion of ice pushes soil A type of non-eroded sediment mixed with organic matter, used by plants. Water has the ability to change the angle of repose the slope angle which is the stable angle for the slope.

  • What are two examples of slow mass movement? Falls are strongly influenced by gravity, mechanical weathering, and the presence of interstitial water.

  • Although water is not always directly involved as the transporting medium in mass movement processes, it does play an important role. Landslide Hazards, David Applegate.

  • This means that air, water or ice dont usually transport debris along with them from place to place but on the other hand the debris may carry with it air, water or ice. Less dramatic types of downslope movement move earth materials slowly down a hillside.

  • Figure 1. CC licensed content, Original.

As water types into the pore spaces, as discussed above, it can both be absorbed onto the clay minerals, and can dissolve away the salts holding the "house of cards" together. The perpendicular component of gravity, g phelps to hold the object in place on the slope. Most slope failure can occur due to over-accumulation of sediment on slope or in a submarine canyon, or could occur as a result of a shock like an earthquake. Static map. A lahar is a mudflow that forms from volcanic ash and debris.

When the dam bursts, the lake will drain causing catastrophic flooding. Fivw and avalanches are the most dramatic, sudden, and dangerous examples of earth materials moved by gravity. What scramble words can you make with these letters a i t o r? What are the different types of mass movement? Hottest Questions.

Retrieved Think about building a sand castle on the beach. As we have seen mass movements mlvement be extremely hazardous and result in extensive loss of life and property. Movement occurs as free-falling, bouncing, and rolling. The steepest angle that a cohesionless slope can maintain without losing its stability is known as its angle of repose. A lahar is mudflow that flows down a composite volcano figure 6.

Types of Mass Movement

Fossils and dinosaurs. Landslide scarps, like fault scarpsare steep terrain created when movement of the adjacent land exposes a part of the subsurface. A good example of this is to think of a sand castle.

  • Figure 1.

  • Landslides, mudflows, slump and creep. A lake will form behind the dam.

  • Unfortunately, in Januaryparts of the slope have shown reactivation movement. Other signs of landslides include tilted or offset structures or natural features that would normally be vertical or in place.

  • Falls are abrupt movements of masses of geologic materials, such as rocks and boulders, that become detached from steep slopes or cliffs. Do you think snow avalanches are a types of mass movement why or why not?

Landslide triggers may include:. A special fypes of soil creep is solifluction, which is the slow movement of soil A type of non-eroded sediment mixed with organic matter, used by plants. The slippery zone is often made up of wet sediment. Snow avalanches are similar, but usually involve only snow. Shocks and vibrations - A sudden shock, such as an earthquake may trigger slope instability. But, in most cases, areas that are prone to such hazards can be recognized with some geologic knowledge, slopes can be stabilized or avoided, and warning systems can be put in place that can reduce vulnerability. When they occur, they create catastrophic tsunamis.

  • Your Score: Your Ranking:. Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together, might indicate moving debris.

  • The white areas on green hillsides mark scars from numerous mudflows. Hillside properties in the San Francisco Bay Area and elsewhere may be prone to damage from landslides.

  • Slope Modification - Modification of a slope either by humans or by natural causes can result in changing the slope angle so that it is no longer at the angle of repose. Sudden decrease in creek water levels though rain is still falling or just recently stopped.

  • How does mass movement shape Earth's surface? Soil flows- soil flow happens when the soil receives heavy amount of rainfall turning the soil into semi liquid state.

  • Vegetation holds soil in place and slows the influx of water. Debris Flow.

  • Geologists are studying the warning signs and progress of local landslides to help reduce risks and give people adequate warnings of these looming threats. These are falls, slides, creeps and flows.

What are two examples of slow mass movement? Mass movements are very effective on weathered slopes compared to unweathered materials. During this process, the liquid state of the soil allows it to flow downwards as soil or mud flow. Rivers can erode the base of a slope and cause a mass movement.

Increased water content within the slope is the most common mass-wasting trigger. Rotational Slide Slump. This caused disastrous flooding upstream in the Soldier Creek and Thistle Creek valleys, mvement the town of Thistle. Later, a tunnel was constructed to drain the lake, and currently the river continues to flow through this tunnel. Mostly Coarse-Grained. Assessing Mass Movement Hazards As we have seen mass movements can be extremely hazardous and result in extensive loss of life and property. The gravitational force acting on a slope can be divided into two components: the shear or driving force fs pushing the block down the slope, and the normal or resisting force fn pushing into the slope, which produces friction.

Types of Mass Movement

Types of Mass Movement Identify and describe types of mass movement. Mudflows — In the absence of vegetation cover and with heavy rainfall, thick layers of weathered materials get saturated with water and either slowly or rapidly flow down along definite channels. Sometimes as one rock falls, it hits another rock, which hits another rock, and begins a landslide. This type of mass movement is more common in the humid regions, it can take place with or without vegetation cover and occurs in narrow tracks on steep slopes.

This means that air, water or ice dont usually transport debris along with them from place to place but on the other hand the debris may carry with it air, water or ice. Creep is a very slow mass movement that goes on for years or even centuries. Definition of mass movement? This can may also occur due to volcanic activity.

Note that granular flows are possible with little or no water. Natural processes such as excessive stream erosion from a flood or coastal erosion during a storm can also oversteepen slopes. Retaining walls could be built to stabilize a slope. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Related Questions

Many landslides have escarpments or scarps. Rapid increase in creek water levels, possibly accompanied by increased turbidity soil content. Slope stability is determined by two factors: the angle of the slope and the shear strength of the accumulated materials.

  • Geological Survey use rain gauges to monitor soil moisture.

  • Gravity is the cause of all types of mass movements. Soil flows- soil flow happens when the soil receives heavy amount of rainfall turning the soil into semi liquid state.

  • This caused disastrous flooding upstream in the Soldier Creek and Thistle Creek valleys, submerging the town of Thistle.

  • Figure 1. They are much larger than land-based slope failures and are an important process sculpting adjacent land.

CC licensed content, Original. Smaller flows can block roads. On the landslide hazard map of Loughborough, UK, areas shown in dark colours are more likely to have landslides than areas shown in light colours. What is a sentence for mass movement? Best Answer.

Figure 5. Landslides are exceptionally destructive. The white areas on green hillsides mark scars from numerous mudflows. Mase is geology? Creep is a very slow mass movement that goes on for years or even centuries. What best describes mass movements? Rockfalls occur from the superficial layers of the rock face, an occurrence that differentiates it from rockslide which affects materials up to a substantial depth.

Vegetation remained relatively intact as it was rafted on the surface of the rapid flow, indicating mass movement much of the landslide mass simply was being carried on a presumably much more saturated and fluidized layer beneath. Runout channels, diversion structures, and check dams can be used to slow debris flows and divert them around structures. They are much larger than land-based slope failures and are an important process sculpting adjacent land. On the landslide hazard map of Loughborough, UK, areas shown in dark colours are more likely to have landslides than areas shown in light colours.

Accessibility links

When the mudflows comes out of channels onto the piedmont or plainsthey can be very destructive engulfing roads, moement and houses. Best Answer. Rotational slide: This is a slide in which the surface of rupture is curved concavely upward and the slide movement is roughly rotational about an axis that is parallel to the ground surface and transverse across the slide figure 2a.

Mass movements Gravity causes sections of cliffs and hills to move down slope. If soil becomes saturated, the weather service issues a warning. However, the materials slump making step-like terraces and leaving actuate scarps at their heads and an accumulation bulge at the toe. Landslides are exceptionally destructive.

Mudflows- a highly fluid, high velocity mixture of sediment and water that has a consistency of wet concrete. An oversteepened slope may also trigger landslides. A fall, including rockfall and debris fall occurs where regolith cascades down a slope, but is not of sufficient volume or viscosity to behave as a flow. Thus, all slopes should be assessed for potential landslide hazards. Mass wastingalso known as slope movement or mass movementis the geomorphic process by which soilsandregolithand rock move downslope typically as a solidcontinuous or discontinuous mass, largely under the force of gravityfrequently with characteristics of a flow as in debris flows and mudflows. Figure 8. The slide killed 28 people, most of whom were in the campground and remain buried there.

Coastal processes

Mass movement can take place slowly, gradually or rapidly, hence affecting shallow to deep columns of materials depending on the gradient of the slope. Mass movements can be very dangerous because they can happen very quickly and involve entire hillsides. It looks like a stream of mud within a valley. This debris avalanche can be much faster than the mudflow. Weak unconsolidated materials, faults, thinly bedded rocks, steeply dipping beds, abundant precipitation, vertical cliffs or steep slopes, and torrential rains and scarcity of vegetation for instance favour mass movements.

All slopes are susceptible to mass movement five different types of mass movement if a triggering diferent occurs. Special stretchable fencing can be applied in areas where rockfall is common to protect pedestrians and vehicles. Static map. Piles of talus are common at the base of a rock slide or debris slide. Hydrologic conditions such as heavy precipitation can be forecast with some certainty, and warnings can be issued to areas that might be susceptible to mass movement processes caused by such conditions. Fluid-like behavior is given these flows by mixing with air. Today, there are still house-sized boulders visible on the slope opposite their starting point.

In the two years after the landslidethe slope has been partially regraded to increase its stability. Thus, all slopes should be assessed for potential landslide hazards. A slope fails when it is too steep and unstable for existing materials and conditions. Most landslide mitigation diverts and drains water away from slide areas. At-risk communities have developed landslide warning systems.

  • Debris Flow.

  • Mudflows are common in tropical regions where there is deep weathering of soils and abundant rainfall.

  • If the slope becomes just slightly steeper, the shear force exceeds the normal forceand the material starts to move downhill.

  • Steep and unstable slopes are more likely to have a mass movement than gentle and stable slopes. Skip to main content.

  • Slope Failures - a sudden failure of the slope resulting in transport of debris down hill by sliding, rolling, falling, or slumping.

Terracing, which creates a stairstep topography, can be applied to help with slope stabilization, but it must be applied at the proper scale mobement be effective. On the landslide hazard map mass movement Loughborough, UK, areas shown in dark colours are more likely to have landslides than areas shown in light colours. Mass wasting is the downhill movement of rock and soil. Mass wasting is the downhill movement of rock and soil A type of non-eroded sediment mixed with organic matter, used by plants. Sometimes as one rock falls, it hits another rock, which hits another rock, and begins a landslide.

This landslide was likely the result of material released from the side of a growing laccolith a type of igneous intrusion see Chapter 4after being triggered by an eruption-related earthquake. Earth flow. Reports from residents suggested that ground cracks had been seen near the top of the slope at least a year prior to the catastrophic movement. The down-slope movement of material, whether it be bedrock, regolith, or a mixture of these, is commonly referred to as a landslide.

Post navigation

Mostly Fine-Grained. Separation occurs along discontinuities such as fractures, joints, and bedding planes, and movement occurs by free-fall, bouncing, and rolling. In all of these cases the shielding has to be engineered to a scale that is greater than the slide, or catastrophic loss in property and life could result. If the material becomes saturated with water, vibrations could cause liquifaction to occur, just like often happens during earthquakes.

What force causes all types of mass movement? On five different types of mass movement landslide movemnt map of Loughborough, UK, areas shown in dark colours are more likely to have landslides than areas shown in light colours. Is a slump mass movement or a creep mass movement faster? Hillside properties in the San Francisco Bay Area and elsewhere may be prone to damage from landslides. A lahar is mudflow that flows down a composite volcano figure 6. Pieces of rock regularly fall to the base of cliffs to form talus slopes.

Some warning signs can be recognized fuve observations of things around you:. The slope of the talus is controlled by the angle of repose for the size of the material. Mass Movement Processes. For example, assume a dry sand pile has an angle of repose of 30 degrees. You can't see creep happening but leaning fences and poles and broken retaining walls show where it has taken place. Mostly Coarse-Grained. Geologically, landslide is a general term for mass wasting that involves fast-moving geologic material.

Content on this site is Creative Commons with Attribution

Mass movement hazards from volcanic eruptions can be predicted with the same degree of certainty that volcanic eruptions can be predicted, but again, the threat has to be realized and warnings need fove be heeded. The upper surface of each slump block remains relatively undisturbed, as do the individual blocks. On hillsides with soils rich in clay, little rain, and not much vegetation to hold the soil in place, a time of high precipitation will create a mudflow. It produced a volume of material equivalent to football fields covered in material 3 m 10 ft deep. These activities may have oversteepened the slope, which resulted in a slow moving landslide that destroyed one home at the bottom of the slope.

What force causes all types of mass movement? Is a slump mass movement or a creep mass movement faster? Find more answers. Mass movements are very effective on weathered slopes compared to unweathered materials. Homes may be destroyed as hillsides collapse. Gravity causes Mass Movement.

  • Answer the question s below to see how well you understand the topics covered in the previous section. Creep is a very slow mass movement that goes on for years or even centuries.

  • Geology around the world. Trees with curved trunks are often signs that the hillside is slowly creeping downhill.

  • If water is added to the sand, the angle of repose will increase, possibly to 60 degrees or even 90 degrees, such as a sandcastle being built at a beach. A lahar is mudflow that flows down a composite volcano figure 6.

  • Write your answer This short quiz does not count toward your grade in the class, and you can retake it an unlimited number of times.

  • The most common types of mass-wasting events are rockfallsslides, flows, and creep A slow and steady movement.

However, weathering is not a necessity for mass movement though it aids mass movements. Geological maps can show if a mass movement is likely to happen. Ask Question. Get involved. All Rights Reserved. Sometimes a mass movement will dam a river. Flows are a mixture of water, rock and sediment.

Type of Movement. Steep and unstable slopes are more likely to have a mass movement than gentle and stable slopes. Tilting or cracking of concrete floors and foundations. The figure shows the angle of repose for sand that is poured into a pile on a flat surface.

Identify and describe types of mass movement.

Soil creeps. How are mudflows and landslides the same? What scramble words can you make with these letters a i t o r? The relationship between speed and moisture content in the different types of mass movements.

The steepest angle at which rock and soil A type of non-eroded five different types of mass movement mixed with organic matter, used by plants. Sunken or down-dropped road beds. When a slope is at the angle of reposethe shear force is in equilibrium with the normal force. Examples of questions on this material that could be asked on an exam. When the normal forcei. The most prominent scarp is the main scarp, which marks the uphill extent of the landslide. Figure 4.

Gravity causes sections of cliffs and hills to move down slope. Movement is caused by shear stress difcerent to five different types of mass movement permanent deformation, but too small to produce shear failure. Soil flows- soil flow happens when the soil receives heavy amount of rainfall turning the soil into semi liquid state. CC licensed content, Original. If a landslide flows into a lake or bay, they can trigger a tsunami figure 4. The size and shape of the separated mass depends on the nature of discontinuities in the rock, the degree of weathering and the steepness of the slope.

Figure 7. If a landslide flows into a lake or bay, they can trigger a tsunami figure 4. Find more answers. Falls and topples. Search for:.

Sometimes as one rock falls, it hits another rock, which hits another rock, and begins a landslide. A lake will form behind the dam. Homes may be destroyed as hillsides collapse.

What types the most dangerous type of mass movement? The factors that can encourage soil creep diffrrent heating and cooling, wetting and drying of the soil in alteration. Mass movement is the movement in which Earth's surface changes. These movements are very common in humid climatic regions and occur over gentle to. The size and shape of the separated mass depends on the nature of discontinuities in the rock, the degree of weathering and the steepness of the slope.

They are fiv a type of mass movement - LOTS of mass moves in an avalanche. When the dam bursts, the lake will drain causing catastrophic flooding. When slopes are steeper, even the bedrock especially of soft sedimentary rocks like shale or deeply weathered igneous rock may slide downslope. Module Mass Movement.

Landslides are exceptionally destructive. Ash mixes with snow and ice melted by the eruption to produce hot, fast-moving flows. Landslides often occur on steep slopes in dry or semi-arid climates. Categories : Environmental soil science Geological hazards Geomorphology.

  • Gravity causes sections of cliffs and hills to move down slope. Figure 3.

  • What cause's a mass movement?

  • When large amounts of rock suddenly break loose from a cliff or mountainside, they move quickly and with tremendous force figure 3.

The volume of material moved by the landslide was 2. When the normal forcei. In rotational landslidesthe toe is often a large, disturbed mound of geologic material, forming as the landslide moves past its original rupture surface. The steeper the slope, the faster the creep. Haugerud, R. Wikimedia Commons. Triggering Events A mass movement can occur any time a slope becomes unstable.

CC licensed content, Original. Creep occurs on almost all slopes, but the rates vary. Slides can be further subdivided into rock slides, debris slides, or earth slides depending on the type of the material involved see table. Falls are strongly influenced by gravity, mechanical weatheringand water.

Landslides and avalanches are the most dramatic, sudden, and dangerous examples of earth materials moved fivw gravity. The most powerful force is water which now acts as the main trigger which enables the rock materials to roll or creep over others. Rotational slide: This is a slide in which the surface of rupture is curved concavely upward and the slide movement is roughly rotational about an axis that is parallel to the ground surface and transverse across the slide figure 2a. Slides occur as planar failures along discontinuities like bedding planes that dip steeply.

Of course if the material forming the flat surface becomes weak or fails, then the unsupported support mass will move downward. The combination of small movements of soil dkfferent rock in different directions over time is directed by gravity gradually downslope. Assessing Mass Movement Hazards As we have seen mass movements can be extremely hazardous and result in extensive loss of life and property. Another force resisting movement down the slope is grouped under the term shear strength and includes frictional resistance and cohesion among the particles that make up the object. Less dramatic types of downslope movement move earth materials slowly down a hillside.

Mass movements are part of a continuum of erosional processes between weathering and stream transport. If they erupt, melted fice and ice mixes with mud and volcanic ash and flows down mountain. Mass movement processes are occurring continuously on all slopes; some act very slowly, others occur very suddenly, often with disastrous results. The most common mass-wasting types are fallsrotational and translational slidesflows, and creep A slow and steady movement. Water content can increase due to rapidly melting snow or ice or an intense rain event.

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?